The Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution

Permanent Secretariat

The Black Sea Commission

Chairmanship of the Commission

Chairmanship of the Black Sea Commission - Ministry of Environment and Water, Bulgaria

Ministry of Environment and Water, Bulgaria

The Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution (the Black Sea Commission or BSC) via its Permanent Secretariat is the inter governmental body established in implementation of the Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution i The Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution was signed in Bucharest in April 1992, and ratified by all six legislative assemblies of the Black Sea countries in the beginning of 1994. Also referred to as "Bucharest Convention", it is the basic framework of agreement and three specific Protocols, which are: the control of land-based sources of pollution; dumping of waste; and joint action in the case of accidents (such as oil spills). The implementation of the provisions of the Convention is supported by the Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution (also referred to as the Istanbul Commission), and its Permanent Secretariat, stationed in Istanbul, Turkey. v (Bucharest Convention), its Protocols i Convention Protocols The Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution contained orignally the following three protocols: Protocol On Protection Of The Black Sea Marine Environment Against Pollution From Land Based Sources (1992) Protocol on cooperation in combating pollution of the black sea marine environment by oil and other harmful substances in emergency situations Protocol On The Protection Of The Black Sea Marine Environment Against Pollution By Dumping These three protocols entered into force with the ratification of the Convention (at least four signatories are required to ratify before the Convention can enter into force) The Black Sea Biodiversity and Landscape Conservation Protocol to the Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution was signed in 2002 at the Meeting of the Ministers of Environment of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against POllution(14 Jun 2002, Sofia, Bulgaria) and entered into force on the 20th June 2011, following the deposition of the fourth ratification instrument by Ukraine on the 21st April, 2011. The fifth protocol is the Protocol on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Black Sea from Land-Based Sources and Activities (2009) signed at the Ministerial Meeting/Diplomatic Conference (17 April 2009), and entered into force on the 20th June 2011 following the completion of the ratification by Turkey (12 Aug 2004), Bulgaria (13 Oct 2004), Ukraine (22 Feb 2007). Georgia (22 Sep 2009) v and the Strategic Action Plan for the Environmental Protection and Rehabilitation of the Black Sea i The Strategic Action Plan for the Environmental Protection and Rehabilitation of the Black Seawas adopted at the Ministerial Meeting/Diplomatic Conference held 17 April 2009 in Sofia, Bulgaria. It updates the The Strategic Action Plan for the Rehabilitation and Protection of the Black Sea (1996), signed in Istanbul, Turkey, on the 30 - 31 October 1996. Whereas the plan adopted in 1996 identified the main challenges and basis for cooprative action as well as making recommendations on the institutional structure needed for adressing these, the 2009 plan analyses the challenges facing the Black Sea environment from a more recent perspective and defines the main EcoQuality Objectives (EcoQO) to be achieved: EcoQO 1: Preserve commercial marine living resources. EcoQO 2: Conservation of Black Sea Biodiversity and Habitats. EcoQO 3: Reduce eutrophication. EcoQO 4: Ensure Good Water Quality for Human Health, Recreational Use and Aquatic Biota. The Plan defines management targets and indicators of achievement. v (first Strategic Action Plan adopted in 1996 and titled "Strategic Action Plan for the Rehabilitation and Protection of the Black Sea " and the second titled " Strategic Action Plan for the Environmental Protection and Rehabilitation of the Black Sea" adopted in 2009) [more info]

Commission Members & Structure

To view the structure of the Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution click here

Chairmanship

Ministry of Environment and Water, Bulgaria

Commission Members

  • Commissioner for Bulgaria - Ms. Atanaska Nikolova, Ministry of Environment and Water, Bulgaria Bulgaria
  • Commissioner for Georgia - Ms. Maia Javakhishvili, Ministry of Environmental Protection and Agriculture of Georgia
  • Commissioner for Romania - Ms. Olimpia Negru, Ministry of Environment, Water and Forests, Romania
  • Commissioner for Russian Federation - Ms. Natalia Tretiakova,  Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation
  • Commissioner for Turkey - Prof. Dr. Mehmet Emin Birpınar, Ministry of Environment, Urbanization and Climate Change, Turkey
  • Commissioner for Ukraine - Ms. Iryna Stavchuk, Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources of Ukraine

Contact Information

Please be informed that as of 23 August 2010 our mailing address has changed as follows:

General Contact Information

email:

Tel: +90 212 299 2940 or +90 212 299 2946

Fax: +90 212 299 2944

Mailing address

Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution

Permanent Secretariat

Maslak Mahallesi

Büyükdere Caddesi, No 265

(Doğa Koruma ve Milli Parklar 1. Bölge Müdürlüğü Binası, 3. Kat)

34398 Sarıyer

Istanbul, Turkey

Location

Third floor of the building of Republic Of Turkey Ministry Of Agriculture And Forestry General Directorate Of Nature Conservation And National Parks, First Regional Directorate (T.C. Tarım ve Orman Bakanlığı, Doğa Koruma ve Milli Parklar, 1. Bölge Müdürlüğü)

The Permanent Secretariat

The Permanent Secretariat is established to assist the Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution (as defined in the Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution i The Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution was signed in Bucharest in April 1992, and ratified by all six legislative assemblies of the Black Sea countries in the beginning of 1994. Also referred to as "Bucharest Convention" ... Article XVII - The Commission ... 7. The Commission shall be assisted in its activities by a permanent Secretariat. The Commission shall nominate the Executive Director and other officials of the Secretariat. The Executive Director shall appoint the technical staff in accordance with the rules to be established by the Commission. The Secretariat shall be composed of nationals of all Black Sea States. 8. The Commission and the Secretariat shall have their headquarters in Istanbul. The location of the headquarters may be changed by the Contracting Parties by consensus. ... v Article XVII #7) and is located in Istanbul, Turkey. Click here for the Headquarters Agreement i The Headquaters Agreement is a legal agreement between the Government of the hosting country of the Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution, the Republic of Turkey and the Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution, established under Atrticle XVII #7, #8 of said convention its provisions relate to, among others, privileges granted to : - Representatives of the Contracting Parties and the Chairman of the Commission - The Official Staff of the Permanent Secretariat - The Support Staff of the Permanent Secretariat - premises of the Permanent Secretariat such as immunity from legal proceedings, certan tax exemptions, invioliablity of archives, etc. full text v currently in force. The Black Sea Commission appoints its Executive Director and other officials of the Secretariat. The Executive Director appoints the technical staff in accordance with the established rules. The Secretariat is composed of nationals of all Black Sea States.


Mailing address and location of Permanent Secretariat premises

General Contact Information

email:

Tel: +90 212 299 2940 or +90 212 299 2946

Fax: +90 212 299 2944

Mailing address

Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution

Permanent Secretariat

Maslak Mahallesi

Büyükdere Caddesi, No 265

(Doğa Koruma ve Milli Parklar 1. Bölge Müdürlüğü Binası, 3. Kat)

34398 Sarıyer

Istanbul, Turkey

Location

Third floor of the building of Republic Of Turkey Ministry Of Agriculture And Forestry General Directorate Of Nature Conservation And National Parks, First Regional Directorate (T.C. Tarım ve Orman Bakanlığı, Doğa Koruma ve Milli Parklar, 1. Bölge Müdürlüğü)

See also Permanent Secretariat page here

Advisory Groups to the Commission

The Advisory Groups to the Black Sea Commission are its main source of expertise, information and support in implementation of the Black Sea Strategic Action Plan 1996. i The Strategic Action Plan for the Rehabilitation and Protection of the Black Sea (1996), signed in Istanbul, Turkey, on the 30 - 31 October 1996, (amended June 22-26 2002, Sofia, Bulgaria) and now updated by the Strategic Action Plan for the Environmental Protection and Rehabilitation of the Sea defines - the basic principles for cooperative common action of the Black Sea coastal states Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, The Russsian Federation, Turkey and Ukraine for the protection of the Black Sea Environment - policy actions to be undertaken - institutional structure to be established to implement common polciy actions including source of expertise, assessments and scientific cooperation Its annexes include the Advisory Groups to be set up and operated to support the Black Sea costal states signatories to the plan and the Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution in the implementation of the objectives of the Convention and the Strategic Agtion Plan v They are established pursuant to Articles 22, 23 (The Istanbul Commission) of the 1996 plan >>, and Annex 1 thereof. Each Advisory Group elects a Chairperson. The Advisory Groups act with the mandate of the Black Sea Commission and their respective Terms of Reference.

More info ...

39th Regular Meeting of the Commission

The 39th Regular Meeting of the Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea held in online format on the 27 October 2021. The Meeting was hosted by the Permanent Secretariat, Istanbul, Turkey.

On 27th October, 2021 the Black Sea Commission held the closed session of its 39th BSC Regular meeting in online format! The Chairmanship until the next BSC Regular meeting was transferred from Ukraine to Bulgaria!

38th Regular Meeting of the Commission

The 38th Regular Meeting of the Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea held 20 April 2021 in online format hosted by the Permanent Secretariat, Istanbul, Turkey.

On 20th April, 2021 the Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution hold on-line its 38th Regular meeting.The Members of Black Sea Commission discussed issues of outmost importance for the Black Sea environment, adopted Regular Budget and agreed to carry out its 39th Regular Meeting in October, 2021!

37th Regular Meeting of the Commission

The 37th Regular Meeting of the Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea held 16-17 October 2019 in Istanbul, Turkey.

The Meeting discussed and adopted the Implementation Report on the Strategic Action Plan for the Environmental Protection and Rehabilitation of the Black Sea, i The Strategic Action Plan for the Environmental Protection and Rehabilitation of the Black Seawas adopted at the Ministerial Meeting/Diplomatic Conference held 17 April 2009 in Sofia, Bulgaria. It updates the The Strategic Action Plan for the Rehabilitation and Protection of the Black Sea (1996), signed in Istanbul, Turkey, on the 30 - 31 October 1996. Whereas the plan adopted in 1996 identified the main challenges and basis for cooprative action as well as making recommendations on the institutional structure needed for adressing these, the 2009 plan analyses the challenges facing the Black Sea environment from a more recent perspective and defines the main EcoQuality Objectives (EcoQO) to be achieved: EcoQO 1: Preserve commercial marine living resources. EcoQO 2: Conservation of Black Sea Biodiversity and Habitats. EcoQO 3: Reduce eutrophication. EcoQO 4: Ensure Good Water Quality for Human Health, Recreational Use and Aquatic Biota. The Plan defines management targets and indicators of achievement. v adopted in Sofia, Bulgaria, 17 April 2009.

Aiming for improving its instutional capacity and operative efficiency, the meeting continued its work on improving and updating the internal documents governing the functioning of the Commission, preparation of new Financaial Rules for adoption by the Contracting Parties aiming at overall improving budgeting and planning of the activities and finding strategies to approach emerging environmental challenges in the Black Sea.

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36th Extraordinary Meeting of the Commission (17-18 April 2019, Istanbul, Turkey)

The 36th Extraordinary Meeting of the Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea held 17-18 April in Istanbul, Turkey.

Aiming for improving its instutional capacity and operative efficiency, the meeting continued its work on improving and updating the internal documents governing the funcioning of the Commission, improving budgeting and planning of the activities and finding solutions to emerging challenges in the work of the Commission.

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Black Sea Day Celebrations 2018 and Award of Black Sea Medals

Şile, Istanbul hosted celebrations of the International Black Sea Day on 31 October 2018.

The event is organized jointly by the Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution and Ministry of Environment and Urbanization of the Republic of Turkey.

This important international event enabled us to evaluate our achievements, discuss new challenges and raise the public awareness that the protection of the Black Sea depends on the efforts of every one of us.

Black Sea Medal Awards were presented to one recipient from each riparian country around the Black Sea to emphasize the importance of efforts in organizing and undertaking activities to protect the Black Sea's unique environment.

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ANEMONE Project Deliverables

ANEMONE Project Deliverables available for download

Latest EMBLAS Project publications

“Belgica” is now “Borys Aleksandrov”: Research vessel received by Ukraine from Belgium with EU support officially receives its Ukrainian name

Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy at a ceremony in Odesa revealed the new name of the oceanographic research vessel Belgica, which was transferred to Ukraine on October 21, 2021. The vessel has been named “Borys Aleksandrov”.

It is symbolic that the legendary Belgian vessel received by Ukraine from the Kingdom of Belgium will now be named after late Prof. Boris Alexandrov, the famous Ukrainian marine biologist and Director of the Institute of Marine Biology, a unique person, Ukrainian scientist and researcher who devoted his entire life to studying the marine environment. Soon ′′Boris Alexandrov′′ vessel will be released on its first scientific flight to conduct research in Black Sea, and later in the Sea of Azov.

During the research cruise the vessel capacity is 31 persons, out of which 15 crew and 12 (or 16, if additional container is used) scientific research members. The maximum speed is 12,5 knots, optimal speed is 10 knots, speed while fishing 4 knots, average haul for 4 knots – 8 tonnes (fishing).

Scientific labs

Belgica has 6 laboratories, deck space for container labs, 2 zones for deck work, storage facilities, fridges in storage facilities, mechanical and electrical working stations. General square of scientific zones is equal to 175 м², out of which 115 м² can serve as laboratories. These facilities are situated on 4 different decks of the vessel. Each lab is equipped with tube of sea and/or fresh water, conditioning system, and also electrical power outlets for computers and devices. Functionally each lab can be equipped in accordance with its needs for different scientific and research tasks. Vessel possesses two oceanographic winches for sampling of water, sediments and biota, as well as 3 trawl winches for fishing.

The ship is a great gift to Ukraine for International Black Sea Day, celebrated annually on the 31st of October. The ship transfer was supported by the EU-UNDP project ′′European Union for Improving of Environmental Monitoring of the Black Sea′′ (EU4EMBLAS). It is expected that the vessel will start its monitoring activities in the Black Sea before the end of this year.

Financial Experts from Georgia execute audit of the accounts of the Black Sea Commission

In the week of 20-24th September, 2021 the Permanent Secretariat hosted in its Istanbul premises the financial experts from Georgia who executed the audit of the accounts of the Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution for the fiscal year 2020/2021. The results of this work will be presented for consideration by the members of the Black Sea Commission at their 39th BSC Regular Meeting planned for 27-28th October, 2021.

From left to right on the photos:

Ms. Maia Javakhishvili

Deputy Head of Environment and Climate Change Department, Member of the Black Sea Commission of Georgia, Ministry of Environmental Protection and Agriculture of Georgia

Ms. Tamriko Pitskhelauri

Head of Internal Audit Department, Ministry of Environmental Protection and Agriculture of Georgia

Ms. Nino Khamkhadze

Head of Internal Audit Division of the Internal Audit Department Ministry of Environmental Protection and Agriculture of Georgia

TUDAV Publications on the Black Sea

Our partner Turksih Marine Research Foundation - Türk Deniz Araştırmaları Vakfı (TUDAV) already published several books for the Black Sea! This also includes publication on Marine litter (edited by Dr.Ülgen Aytan) and Journal of Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment ( https://blackmeditjournal.org/ )! Check this out at https://tudav.org/en/our-fields/publications/ !!!

Publication of New Book by Prof. Bayram Öztürk

We are happy to announce that our colleague, Prof. Bayram Öztürk published a new book in 2021. It covers topic of Non-indigenous species in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea and published under support of General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM). Check it out at https://doi.org/10.4060/cb5949en   Turksih Marine Research Foundation - Türk Deniz Araştırmaları Vakfı (TUDAV)

Update of the List of endangered marine species from the Romanian Black Sea coast

In the light of implementation of provisions of the Black Sea Biodiversity Protocol and Black Sea Strategic Action Plan (2009), Romania updated the List of endangered marine species from the Romanian Black Sea coast by Order of Ministry of Environment, Waters and Forests (no. 300 of 09.04.2020, into effect on 09.04.2020).

Black Sea State of Environment Report 2009 - 2014

The Black Sea State of Environment Report 2009-2014 with ISBN Number 978-605-84837-0-5 is available for direct download.

The Black Sea, surrounded by the six coastal countries the Republic of Bulgaria (Bulgaria), Georgia, Romania, the Russian Federation (Russia), the Republic of Turkey (Turkey), and Ukraine. The location of the Black Sea Basin together with its climatic conditions has created a unique ecological system. Today, many of the Black Sea species are threatened by over-exploitation, habitat destruction, pollution and climate change. It reflects negatively on human well-being, social and economic sectors, and environmental services. By 1994, all Black Sea littoral states ratified the Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution of the Black Sea (the Bucharest Convention).

The Black Sea State of Environment Report examines the trends and development in the environment of the Black Sea and analyzes and traces these trends to human activities and the policy measures implemented by the Black Sea litoral countries, Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, The Russian Federation, Turkey and Ukraine.

The report may also be viewed online.

Announcements & Other events

Earth Observation Data for Science and Innovation in the Black Sea (EO4SIBS)

Black Sea and Danube Regional Initiative – Science

EO4SIBS (www.eo4sibs.uliege.be) aims at building a Black Sea Earth Observation data Exploitation Platform (EOEP) to maximize the impact of EO data by supporting an excellent science and stimulating the emergence of innovative added-value marine products and core services. The Platform will integrate satellite, in-situ and airborne data as well as new products delivered by the project and will make them available online in open access.

EO4SIBS EO4SIBS

Download the project brochure here

The Surveying & Maritime Internet of Things Education (SMARTSEA)

The SMARTSEA project (https://www.smart-sea.eu/ ) aims to develop an interactive MSc course on Maritime and Surveyor ICT/IoT systems, which helps complete the market void in technical and maintenance specialists generated by the prompt expansion of the Smart Maritime & Surveying industry.

Smartsea Project Smartsea Project

Download the project brochure here

ICZM Guidelines

Guideline on ICZM / Appendixes: Appendix 1, Appendix 2

 Book of Abstracts available for download

Book of Abstracts

Book of Abstracts (ISBN Number 978-605-84837-1-2) of the International scientific conference, Dedicated to 95th Anniversary of Academician of the NAS of Ukraine Yuvenaly Zaitsev «ACHIEVEMENTS IN STUDIES OF MARGINAL EFFECT IN WATER ECOSYSTEMS AND THEIR PRACTICAL SIGNIFICANCE» June 13-14, 2019, Odessa, Ukraine, is available for download

 The Black Sea - Physical, Environmental and Historical Perspectives

This book underpins the geography of the Black Sea, covering topics such as morphology, morphography, geology, and history of the Black Sea. It also discusses environmental aspects affecting the population in the Black Sea's coastal settlements and looks to the future of the Black Sea region. This book covers a gap in research in the field of world regional geography of the Black Sea by providing a comprehensive methodology and terminology to readers, students and teachers in the field.

The Black Sea - Physical, Environmental and Historical Perspectives

Vespremeanu E., Golumbeanu M., 2018 The Black Sea – Physical,  Historical and Environmental Perspectives,  World Regional Geography Book Series, Springer Geography, Earth and Environmental Science eBook Collection, Printed by Printforce, the Netherlands, 150 pp, ISSN 2194-315x, ISSN 2194-3168 (electronic), ISBN 978-3-319-70853-9, ISBN 978-3-319-70855-3 (eBook), https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70855-3, Library of Congress Control number: 2017958552, @Springer International Publishing AG 2018.

 GFCM Fish Forum, Dec 2018

The GFCM Secretariat

The GFCM Secretariat, in cooperation with the Fish Forum Coordinators, and Black Sea Commission Permanent Secretariat in particular, is organizing in Rome, Italy the Fish Forum in December, 2018 and announcing the ongoing call for abstracts (deadline for submission 15 May 2018) available at this link : http://www.fao.org/gfcm/fishforum2018/callforabstracts/en/ .

 Recent Publications on Marine Litter in the Black Sea

First observations on the abundance and composition of floating debris in the North-western Black Sea

Giuseppe Suaria, Mihaela C. Melinte-Dobrinescu, Gabriel Ion, Stefano Aliani

The occurrence of marine litter in the Black Sea region is poorly known and even less data have been reported on the abundance of floating debris. Here we present results from a ship-based visual survey carried out in the North-Western part of the Black Sea, providing the first preliminary data on the characteristics of floating debris in Romanian waters.

Read full article here

Publications

ANEMONE-Deliverable1-1

ANEMONE Project Deliverable 1-1

Overview of monitoring programs, gaps identification, and research needs at Black Sea region
ANEMONE-Deliverable1-3

ANEMONE Project Deliverable 1-3

Black Sea monitoring and assessment guideline
ANEMONE-Deliverable2-1

ANEMONE Project Deliverable 2-1

Impact of the rivers on the Black Sea ecosystem
ANEMONE-Deliverable2-2

ANEMONE Project Deliverable 2-2

Anthropogenic pressures and impacts on the Black Sea coastal ecosystem
ANEMONE-Deliverable2-3

ANEMONE Project Deliverable 2-3

Black Sea state of environment based on ANEMONE Joint Cruise
ANEMONE-Deliverable3-1

ANEMONE Project Deliverable 3-1

Hazardous substances assessment in Black Sea biota
ANEMONE-Deliverable4-1

ANEMONE Project Deliverable 4-1

From public engagement to Citizen Science - Black Sea model
ANEMONE-Deliverable4-2

ANEMONE Project Deliverable 4-2

Marine Litter Status on Black Sea shore through Citizen Science
ANEMONE-Deliverable4-3

ANEMONE Project Deliverable 4-3

Citizen Science - a tool to assess cetacean population status
Black Sea Monitoring Guidelines Microzooplankton

EMBLAS Project Deliverables

Black Sea Monitoring Guidelines Microzooplankton
Black Sea Monitoring Guidelines Mesozooplankton

EMBLAS Project Deliverables

Black Sea Monitoring Guidelines Mesozooplankton
Black Sea Monitoring Guidelines. Macroplankton (Gelatinous plankton)

EMBLAS Project Deliverables

Black Sea Monitoring Guidelines. Macroplankton (Gelatinous plankton)
Black Sea Monitoring Guidelines Macrophytobenthos

EMBLAS Project Deliverables

Black Sea Monitoring Guidelines Macrophytobenthos
Black Sea Marine Litter Regional Action Plan

Black Sea Marine Litter Regional Action Plan

The Black Sea State of Environment Report 2009-2014

The Black Sea State of Environment Report 2009-2014

PhytoPlanktonManual

Phytoplankton Manual

BS NonNative Fish List

Black Sea Non-Native Fish List

BSFish IUCN

Black Sea Fishes List IUCN Status

QC Guidelines Phytoplankton

Guidelines for Quality Control of Biological Data - Phytoplankton

Kerch Report

Kerch Report

Final Diagnostic Report

'Diagnostic Report' to guide improvements to the regular reporting process on the state of the Black Sea environment

Black Sea Fishes Check List

Black Sea Fishes Check List

Jellyfish

Is the number of jellyfish increasing as the Black Sea is warming up?

State of Environment 2009

State of the Environment of the Black Sea (2002/2007)

BSSAP Implementation 2002/2007

Implementation of the Black Sea Strategic Action Plan (2002/2007)

Marine Litter Report

Marine Litter Report

MZBNTHS Manual

Manual for Quantitative Sampling and Sample Treatment of Marine Soft-Bottom Macrozoobenthos

SOE 2002

State of Environment of the Black Sea 1996 - 2000

BSSAP Implementation 1996 - 2000

Implementation of the Black Sea Strategic Action Plan 1996 - 2000 (Bulgarian, Georgian, Romanian, Russian, Turkish, Ulrainian)

Language Main Report Annexes
English pdf pdf
html
Bulgarian pdf pdf
Georgian pdf pdf
Romanian doc doc
Russian pdf pdf
Turkish pdf pdf
Ukrainian pdf pdf

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