The Europaen Commission The Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution
BSC LogoEC Logo

Report Contents

Acknowledgements 1. Introduction 2 Challenges 3 The Basis for Cooperative Action 4 Policy Actions Conclusions
Annex I. Basis for Cooperative Measures Annex II. Policy Actions Annex III. LBS Report 2007: Land Based Pressures on the Black Sea Annex VI. Nationally Reported Date Annex V. Black Sea Monitoring And Assessment Program
List of Tables List of Figures

Implementation of the Strategic Action Plan for the Rehabilitation and Protection of the Black Sea

2002 - 2007

Implementation of the Strategic Action Plan for the Rehabilitation and Protection of the Black Sea

Annex I. Basis for Cooperative Measures

I.1. Conventions to which the Black Sea States Are Contracting Parties (Ref. websites of Conventions)

State Bulgaria Georgia Romania Russian Federation Turkey Ukraine
Conventions and Agreements S R/A S R/A S R/A S R/A S R/A S R/A
Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution (Bucharest Convention) 21.04.92 15.01.94 21.04.92 12.01.94 21.04.92 29.09.92 21.04.92 12.08.93 21.04.92 06.03.94 21.04.92 14.02.94
UN Convention on Biological Diversity-CBD 12.06.1992 17.04.1996(R)    02.06.1994(Ac) 05.06.1992 17.08.1994(R) 13.06.1992 05.04.1995(R) 11.06.1992 14.02.1997(R) 11.06.1992 07.02.1995(R)
UN Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species-CITES   16.01.1991(Ac)16.04.1991(E) 1971 13.09.1996(Ac)12.12.1996(E)   18.08.1994(Ac)16.11.1994(E)   13.01.1992(Ac)01.01.1992(E)   23.09.1996(Ac)22.12.1996(E)   30.12.1999(Ac)29.03.2000(E)
UN Convention on Combat Desertification-CCD   21.02.2001(Ac)22.05.2001(E) 15.10.1994 23.07.1999(R)21.10.1999(E)   19.08.1998(Ac)17.11.1998(E)     14.10.1994 31.03.1998(R)29.08.1998(E)    
European Landscape Convention 20.10.2000       20.10.2000       20.10.2000      
UN Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat-RAMSAR   24.01.1976(E)   07.06.1997(E)   21.09.1991(E)   11.02.1977(E)   13.11.1994(E)   01.12.1991(E)
Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats-Bern Convention   31.01.1991(Ac)01.05.1991(E)       18.05.1993(Ac)01.09.1993(E)     19.09.1979 02.05.1984(R)01.09.1984(E) 17.08.1998 05.01.1999(R)01.05.1999(E)
Bonn Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals   01.09.1999(E)   01.06.2000(E)   01.07.1998(E)           01.11.1999(E)
Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans of the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Contiguous Atlantic Area-ACCOBAMS 16.09.1999 23.09.1999(R) 24.11.1996 31.03.2001 28.09.1998 13.06.2000            
Cartagena Protocol on Biodiversity 24.05.2000 13.10.2000(R)     11.10.2000       24.05.2000      
World Heritage Convention   07.03.1974 (A)   04.11.1992   16.05.1990(A)   12.10.1988(R)   16.03.1983(R)   12.10.1988(R)
Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo C.) 26.02.1991 12.05.1995(R)     26.02.1991 29.03.2001 (R) 06.06.1991       26.02.1991 20.07.1999(R)
Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment (Espoo C) +   +   +           +  
BASEL Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal   16.02.1996 (A)   24.05.1999 (A)   27.02.1991(A)   31.01.1995(R)   22.06.1994(R)   08.10.1999(A)
Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters 25.06.1998   25.06.1998 11.04.2000 (R) 25.06.1998 11.07.2000(R)         25.06.1998 18.11.1999(R)
Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention)   24.02.06           29.01.76       06.03.76
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78)   19.05.05   08.02.95   18.03.93   03.11.83   10.10.90   25.01.94
UN Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution   09.06.1981 (R)   11.09.1999 (Ac)   27.02.1991 (R)   27.02.1991 (R)   18.04.1983 (R)   05.06.1980 (R)


1.1.1. IMO Conventions

The IMO are 60 in total, and the BS states are parties to most of them (

 Country/Convention Bulgaria Georgia Romania Russian Federation Turkey Ukraine
IMO Convention 48 x x x x x x
IMO amendments 91 x x x x    
IMO amendments 93 x x x x x  
SOLAS Convention 74 x x x x x x
SOLAS Protocol 78 x   x x   x
SOLAS Protocol 88 x x x x   x
Stockholm Agreement 96            
LOAD LINES Convention 66 x x x x x x
LOAD LINES Protocol 88 x   x x    
TONNAGE Convention 69 x x x x x x
COLREG Convention 72 x x x x x x
CSC Convention 72 x x x x   x
CSC amendments 93 x   x      
SFV Protocol 93 x          
STCW Convention 78 x x x x x x
STCW-F Convention 95       x   x
SAR Convention 79 x x x x x x
STP Agreement 71            
STP Protocol 73            
INMARSAT Convention 76 x   x x x x
INMARSAT OA 76 x   x x x x
INMARSAT amendments 94 x       x x
INMARSAT amendments 98 x   x   x  
IMSO amendments 2006            
FACILITATION Convention 65 x x x x   x
MARPOL 73/78 (Annex I/II) x x x x x x
MARPOL 73/78 (Annex III) x x x x   x
MARPOL 73/78 (Annex IV) x x x x   x
MARPOL 73/78 (Annex V) x x x x x x
MARPOL Protocol 97 (Annex VI) x   x      
London Convention 72       x   x
London Convention Protocol 96 x x        
INTERVENTION Convention 69 x x   x   x
INTERVENTION Protocol 73 x x   x    
CLC Convention 69   x   d    
CLC Protocol 76   x   x    
CLC Protocol 92 x x x x x x
FUND Convention 71       d    
FUND Protocol 76       x    
FUND Protocol 92 x x   x x  
FUND Protocol 2003            
NUCLEAR Convention 71 x          
PAL Convention 74   x   x   x
PAL Protocol 76   x   x   x
PAL Protocol 90            
PAL Protocol 02            
LLMC Convention 76 x x x   x  
LLMC Protocol 96 x   x x    
SUA Convention 88 x x x x x x
SUA Protocol 88 x x x x x x
SUA Convention 2005            
SUA Protocol 2005            
SALVAGE Convention 89   x x x    
OPRC Convention 90 x x x   x  
HNS Convention 96       x    
OPRC/HNS 2000       x    
ANTI FOULING 01 x   x      
BALLASTWATER 2004            
NAIROBI WRC 2007            

I.2. Multi- and bilateral agreements among the BS basin states and others (Black Sea states reporting, BSIS)

Convention between the Government of the Republic of Bulgaria and the Government of Romania in the field of Environmental Protection, signed on signed on 09.12.1991, unlimited.

Agreement between the People’s Republic of Bulgaria and the Republic of Turkey for cooperation in the use of water of transboundary rivers - signed on 23.10.1968 in Istanbul; in force since 26.10.1970; ratified Decree 958/28.11.1968., SG 94/1968; text - UN Treaties, volume 807, p. 117, № 11513.

Agreement between the Republic of Bulgaria and the Republic of Turkey for establishing the border in the area of Resovska/Mutludere river mouth and delineation of the sea area between the two countries in the Black Sea - signed on 04.12.1997 in Sofia; in force since 04.11.1998; ratified with a law passed by the National Assembly on 24.06.1998, SG 79/1998.

Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Bulgaria and the Government of the Republic of Turkey on Cooperation in the Field of Environmental Protection, 19.04.2004

Agreement between the Ministry of Environment and Water of the Republic of Bulgaria and the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Ukraine on Cooperation in the field of Preservation of the Environment and Rational Use of Natural Resources, signed on 30.01.2003, unlimited.

Agreement between the Ministry of Environment and Water of the Republic of Bulgaria and the Ministry of Environment and Water Management of Romania on Cooperation in the Field of Water Management, signed on 12.11.2004, in force since 15.03.2005, unlimited.

This is the first specific agreement signed with the competent authorities for WFD in a neighbouring country specifically aimed at WFD implementation including transitional and coastal waters.

Agreement between the Romanian Government and the Ukrainian Government regarding the cooperation in the Field of Border Waters Management, signed on 30.09.1997

Agreement between the Ministry of the Environment and Urbanism of the Republic of Moldova, the Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection of Romania and Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Ukraine regarding the cooperation in the area formed by the Danube Delta and Inferior Prut River’s protected areas, adopted on 05.06.2000

Agreement between the Government of Romania and Government of the Republic of Turkey regarding the cooperation in the Field of Environmental Protection, adopted on 10.09.2001

1997 Agreement on Environmental Cooperation between the Government of Georgia and the Government of the Republic of Turkey.

Memorandum of Intended Cooperation for the Cooperation between the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Protection/Republic of Georgia and the Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Forests, Environment and Water Management/Republic of Austria;

Memorandum of Understanding between the World Bank and Georgia;

Agreement between the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Georgian Ministry of Environment (GMoE) on Establishment of a UNEP/GRID-compatible Environmental Information Network Centre for Georgia (GRID-TBILISI);

Memorandum of Understanding concerning Environmental Protection between the Ministry of Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works of the Hellenic Republic and the Ministry of Environmental Protection of the Georgian Republic;

Agreement in the field of Cooperation (Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kirgizia);

Agreement of cooperation between Government of Georgia and Government of Ukraine in the field of Fisheries. (Abolished);

Agreement between Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kirgizia on the Control of Trans-boundary Transportation of Hazardous Substances and others;

Georgian 1995 Agreement for the Implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, and Related Instruments;

I.3. National and International Cooperation for the Protection of the Black Sea (Programmes, Major Projects and Activities - Black Sea states reporting, BSIS)

I.3. Strategic Partnership in the Black Sea Region


I.3.2. GEF/UNDP Black Sea Environmental Recovery Project: Pilot Projects and key achievements in 2002-2007 (see the Final Report of BSERP)

I.3.2.1. Key achievements

I.3.2.2. GEF/UNDP BSERP Small Grants Projects in 2002-2007 (BSERP Final Report)

No Country NGO Description
Phase II      
1 Bulgaria TIME Foundation Sustainable and Integrated Management of Domestic Wastewater in Pilot Bulgarian Black Sea Resorts
2   Regional Development Agency Public Involvement in Bathing Water Quality Co-Management
4   EUROPE AND WE Improving the Ecological Situation in Front of the Pomorie Black Sea Coast
6   Club Edelweiss Informational Campaign for Creating New Protected Zones on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast
7 Georgia CENN Public Awareness Raising and Promotion of Public involvement in the Black Sea Management Process in Ajara region
8   Int. Ass. "Tskarostvali" Black Sea Coastal Zone Schools for the Protection of The Black Sea
9   Eco Vision Informing society about nutrients and toxic substances by means of "Littoral" newspaper
10   Caucasus Green Area Black Sea Environmental Problems Awareness Rising and Development of Information Channels for Key Stakeholders
11   Journalists and Society Journalists and local authorities for Black Sea Coastal Zone and Ecosystem conservation - frames and methods of collaboration
12   Imereti Scientists' Union Spectri Pure Rioni - Pure Black Sea
13   Eco Academy Elimination of acute risks of obsolete pesticides in Adjaria (Kobuleti)
14 Romania UNESCO Pro Natura Promoting nature protection and best agricultural practices to mitigate the nutrients pollution in the coastal areas
15   DaciaFilm The Current Stage of the Black Sea Ecosystem as a Consequence of the Process of Eutrophication
16   Mare Nostrum Pilot project on eutrophication control in Nuntasi lake area
17   CESEP Reducing Nutrients Through Public Participation in Coastal Area
18   Center for Complexity Studies-UNESCO Centre Integrative Communication Leverage for Awareness Synchronization on the Ecological Risks in the Black Sea Basin
19 Russia KKOOP "Life without danger to the Black sea!"
20   EWNWC Transboundary Communication and Increase Awareness of General Public on Issues of Black Sea Pollution
21   "Sailing Academy" Let us stop degradation of water ecosystem!
22   "Krasnodar exotarium" Justification of specially protected area creation "Lake Khanskoye"
23   Fighting Friends Popular film: "Utrish. Threat of ecological disaster"
24 Turkey Kardoga Public Awareness Raising towards Reduction of Nutrients reaches to the Black Sea from Eastern Black Sea
25   Izmit Local Agenda 21 Project for the Sustainable Life in Black Sea
26   Nature and Wild Life Conservation _Samsun Conscious Nature Protection via Conscious Production and Consumption
27   Zonguldak Environmental Protection Association Information Campaign and Performing a Theatrical Presentation aiming to Awareness and Social Consciousness Raising on the Subjects of the Importance of Recycling and the Reduction of Pollution at Source for the Protection of Black Sea Ecosystem
28   Trabzon Environment and Culture Enteprenuers Assoc Regional Awareness Raising to Reducing Domestic Pollutants which have been effecting the Water Resources
29 Ukraine "Vesely Delphin" Tarkhankut Peninsula coastal zone management
30   Dnieper - Nikopol Public Basin Council as a Body for Water Resources Management
31   NECU Establishing of the National Park "Kinburnskiy"
32   Ukrainian Land Union National Strategic Action Plan on protection and rehabilitation of Black Sea: public opinion (Organization and conducting of the Forum of Black Sea NGOs)
33   RBSNPO Tiligul - Ramsar Management
34   CRCSRSZT Creation of the Marine Protected Area "Phyllophora Field of Zernov"
35   EDU The Black Sea: love stories through the eyes of generations
36   Academy of Ecology Preparation and publication of the special issue of the Magazine "Our Nature" dedicated to the Black Sea
Phase I      
1 Bulgaria Black Sea Coastal Association, Varna Promotion of Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment in Small Coastal Communities in Bulgaria
2   Black Sea NGO Network (BSNN) Black Sea NGO Networking toward Recovery of Black Sea Ecosystem
3   Greener Bourgas Foundation Campaign for Protection of Black Sea from Nutrient Pollution (Promotion of Sustainable Agricultural Practices in Bulgarian Black Sea Coastal Zone)
4 Romania UNESCO Pro Natura - Association for Action in Protected Areas Black Sea Basin Environmental Issues On-line
5   Prietenii Pamantului (Earth Friends) Water is Life - production of visual educational materials for schools, local authorities and the general public
6   G.E.S.S. -- The Group for Underwater and Speleological Exploration Black Sea Public Awareness Project
7   Mare Nostrum (Constanta) Voluntary Program in the Romanian coastal watershed to control and reduce agricultural pollution
8 Russia Sochi Branch of the Russian Geographic Society Recovery of Kolkhida-type flora and fauna in Imeretinskaya Wetland and legalization of the protection status of the site as a nature monument.
9   Environmental Center of Sochi Wetland Education for Children
10   Sports and Health Society “Sailing Academy” The Green Filter for the polluted drains
11 Turkey Turkish Environmental and Woodland Protection Society, Istanbul Coordinated Public Awareness and Participation Project of the Turkish Black Sea NGOs
12   The Black Sea Environmentalist (Trabzon) Raising the public awareness on the effects of pollution on environment, human health and wildlife in Trabzon
13 Ukraine Institute of Ecology INECO - South Branch Promote Cost-effective water treatment facilities for small coastal communities in Ukraine
14   Regional Black Sea NGOs Network, Mykolaiv Clean Water (Preparation and Implementation of Pilot Project on Wetland Restoration at Lower Dnieper)
15   Odessa Branch of the International Socio-ecological Union The Revival of the Dniester mouth region - Pledge of decrease of a eutrophication level in a northwest part of Black Sea
16   Sevastopol Environmental Organisation “SECAMP-2000” Public Information Campaign “Stop Black Sea eutrophication syndrome -- a role for everyone”
17   Fund of Natural Sciences and Ecology (Odessa) Series of video films “The Life of the Sea Coast”

I.3.3. GEF/UNIDO (National Reporting, BSIS)

Development of the National Action Plan for Implementing the Requirements of the POP Stockholm Convention, 2001-2007 (Romania)

I.3.4. The Danube Black Sea Task Force (DABLAS): Development of Investment projects, June 2004-October 2007


Constanta Regional Wastewater Treatment


 Bourgas Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant


 Ordu and Turhal Wastewater Treatment


 Novorossijk and Anapa Wastewater Treatment


 Mykolaiv Water and Wastewater, Uzhgorod Water and Treatment

Task ID Task Title Actions Deliverables Objectives
A W&S Project Preparation Assistance Phase III [Bulgaria]  Strategic Framework Document for Bourgas Regional W & WW Project drafted (Technical need defined, legal structure for regional cooperation proposed, financial structure assessed.)Further TA development needs defined for follow-on EC funded assistance One pilot Bulgarian regional W&S project (Bourgas Regional W & WW Project) structured for co-financing using 2007 Cohesion Funds Development of a project pipeline for the Black Sea
B  W&S Project Preparation Assistance Phase III [Romania] ToR for further TA development needs defined for follow-on EC funded assistance for Constanta Regional W & WW Project One pilot Romanian regional W&S project (Constanta Regional W & WW Project) structured for co-financing using 2007 Cohesion Funds
C W&S Project Preparation Assistance Phase III [Ukraine] (Funded by others - UNDP GEF: See UNDP GEF scope of works.)Review of project investments for Kherson and Mariupol Vodokanals.               2 pilot Ukrainian W&S DABLAS investment projects structured (one pilot that meets TACIS low income grant eligibility criteria (Mykolaiv), and the other that does not (note UNDP GEF project to fund resources to complete 2 pilots).
D W&S Project Preparation Assistance Phase III [Russia] TA to assist launch the EC TAIEX program for Russia that would facilitate Russian water utility managers / engineers to spend time working with western European water utilities. Program launched for Russian water utility manager exchange under EC TAIEX.One pilot exchange underway
E  W&S Project Preparation Assistance Phase III [Turkey] Work with Iller Bank and the Cities of Ordu and Turhal to structure the co-financing for the W&S investments. IPA Co-financing structured. FSs and EIAs underway for Turhal and Ordu W&S investments.EC-IPA co-financing structured for Ordu and Turhal investments
F General Capacity Building Assistance in Project Preparation (Phase III)[General] Prepare “Amended ‘Good Practices in Project Preparation for Public water utilities’ documents” for each of the 6 Black Sea countries Prepare “General Guidance notes on Water Utility Financial and Operational Analysis” Amended ‘Good Practices in Project Preparation for Public water utilities’ documentsGeneral Guidance notes on Water Utility Financial and Operational Analysis Capacity Building of the Beneficiary
G Dissemination of project results/increasing decision maker capacity for preparation of bankable projects, maintenance of DABLAS Project Database. Preparation, translation and publication of an edition of the Black Sea Commission Newsletter highlighting to DABLAS related work and identification of priority projects.Database redesign to incorporate dynamic project development and dynamic project data.Development of a special section dedicated to DABLAS Priority Investment Projects on the BSC web.  Publication of the Black Sea Commission Newsletter, printed version and translated electronic versions in the national languages of the countries, signatories to the Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution (Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, Ukraine).Maintained and updated database of DABLAS project data. Dissemination of the project results

1.3.5. World Bank ( and EBRD Projects

Project Name Country Date of Approval
Municipal Infrastructure Development Bulgaria N/A
Environmental Remediation Pilot Project Bulgaria 12 May 1998
Environmental & Privatization Support Adjustment Loan Bulgaria 24 January 2000
Wetland Restoration and Pollution Reduction Bulgaria 13 June 2002
Lake Pomorie Conservation, Restoration and Sustainable Management Bulgaria 17 February 2005
Energy Efficiency GEF Project Bulgaria 22 March 2005
Municipal Development & Decentralization 2 Project Georgia 1 August 2002
Municipal Infrastructure Rehabilitation Project Georgia 8 November 1994
Regional & Municipal Infrastructure Development Project Georgia N/A
Integrated Coastal Zone Management Georgia 17 December 1998
Protected Areas Development Georgia 24 May 2001
Agricultural Research, Extension and Training GEF Project Georgia 11 May 2001
Hazard Risk Mitigation & Emergency Preparedness GEF Project Romania 20 May 2004
Danube Delta Biodiversity GEF Project Romania 26 August 1994
Biodiversity Conservation Management Project Romania 27 May 1999
Agricultural Pollution Control GEF Project Romania 13 December 2001
GEF Romania Integrated Nutrient Pollution Control Project Romania 30 October 2007
Energy Efficiency GEF Project Romania 19 September 2002
Municipal Services Project Romania 13 July 2006
Mine Closure, Environment & Socio-Economic Regeneration Project Romania 16 December 2004
Biodiversity Conservation Project Russian Federation 30 May 1996
Rostov Nutrient Discharge & Methane Reduction GEF Project Russian Federation Dropped
ENERGY Efficiency Russian Federation 2 May 1995
Krasnodar Agricultural Nutrient Reduction GEF Project Russian Federation Dropped
Geothermal Energy Development Program (GeoFund): 2nd tranche Russian Federation Dropped
Greenhouse Gas Reduction in Natural Gas Global Environmental Facility Russian Federation 19 December 1995
Ozone-Depleting Substance Consumption Phase-Out GEF Project Russian Federation 29 December 2006
Environmental Liabilities Russian Federation Dropped
Environmental Management Project Russian Federation 8 November 1994
Municipal Water & Wastewater Project Russian Federation 21 December 2000
Municipal Heating Project Russian Federation 27 March 2001
Hydrometeorological System Modernization Russian Federation 17 March 2005
Emergency Oil spill recovery and Mitigation Russian Federation 25 April 1995
Biodiversity & Natural Resource Management GEF Project Turkey 13 June 2000
Anatolia Watershed Rehabilitation GEF Project (Black Sea) * Turkey 1 June 2004
Istanbul Municipal Infrastructure Project Turkey 28 June 2007
Municipal Services Project Turkey 23 June 2005
Renewable Energy Turkey 25 March 2004
Baku-Seyhan oil export pipeline technical assistance Turkey 12 September 1996
Ozone Depleting Substances Phase-Out GEF Project Ukraine 23 June 1998
Danube Delta Biodiversity GEF Project Ukraine 19 July 1994
Municipal Development Ukraine Dropped
Development policy loan   5 July 2005
Azov Black Sea Corridor Biodiversity Conservation GEF Project Ukraine Dropped

EBRD Municipal Utilities Development Programme Phases 1 and II (Romania, National reporting)

I.3.6. EC FP and other Scientific Projects (National reporting, BSIS)

I.3.7. Other EC projects, including TACIS/EuropeAid

No. AP Cost Name Coverage Situation Duration Working group Contractor
3 2003  800,000 € Satellite monitoring and accident prevention RF & NIS Completed 1st study. New ToR prepared by ITS. Tender done. Short listed. Tender unsuccessfu; project dropped   2.Safety & security  
4 2003 1,460,000 € Development of maintenance practices in NIS gas companies NIS except Tajikistan Ended 12/2007. Final report & wrap up in progress. 2 years 2.Safety & security FICHTNER
5 2003 503,503 € Supply of IT equipment and training for development of maintenance excellence in NIS gas companies. NIS except Tajikistan & Ukraine Ended 12/2007. Wrap up in progress. 1½ years 2.Safety & security INFOR / Data stream
6 2003 1,576,500 € Pre-feasibility studies for developing North-South gas transit interconnections in Caucasus and Central Asia. Central Asia & Caucasus Ended 12/2007. Final report & wrap up in progress. 1½ years 2.Safety & security KLC-Mott MacDonald-Kantor
10 2004 3,646,400 € INOGATE secretariat All Started 11/2005. Ongoing 3 years 5.Administration EIR-LDK-EREC-LB
11 2004 2,620,000 € IFI Technical assistance fund E.E. & Caucasus Ended 04/2008. Wrap up in progress. 2 years 4.Investment KLC-Mott MacDonald-LB-Kantor
14 2005 1,000,000 € Feasibility study for expanding the Eastern Europe Regional Natural Gas Metrological Centre to include oil and oil products metrology Ukraine, Moldova and Belarus ToR under preparation. Devolved. 1½ years 1.Harmonisation  
15 2005 3,000,000 € Harmonisation of gas and oil technical standards and practices E.E. & Caucasus Started 12/2007. Ongoing 2 years 1.Harmonisation FICHTNER-SWECO-DIN-BSI
16 2005 1,000,000 € Safety and security of main gas transit infrastructure E.E. & Caucasus Started 12/2007. Ongoing 2½ years 2.Safety & security SWECO-Fichtner-AEA
17 2005 1,000,000 € Supply for safety and security of main gas transit infrastructure in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus E.E. & Caucasus Contracting in progress. 1½ years 2.Safety & security  
20 2006 2,500,000 € International Training Centre for Oil & Gas Metrology Excellence, to be attached to the Metrological Centre in Boyarka Ukraine, Moldova and Belarus ToR under preparation. Devolved. 2 years 1.Harmonisation  
21 2006 1,500,000 € Harmonisation of technical standards, rules and practices in the electricity sector in NIS countries NIS ToR under preparation. Procurement notice published. 1½ years 1.Harmonisation  
22 2006 9,500,000 € Identification and Promotion of Energy Efficiency (EE) Investments Ukraine and Moldova Ongoing. Financing agreement signed with EBRD in 12/2006 4 years 3. Sustainable Energy EBRD
24 2006 5,000,000 € Support to Kyoto Protocol Implementation (SKPI) NIS + RF Started 09/2008. Ongoing 3 years 3. Sustainable Energy ICF Consulting-Hogan&Hartson-TÜV Rheinland
25 2007 6,000,000 € Support to Energy Market Integration and Sustainable Energy in the NIS (SEMISE) NIS Tendering in progress. 3 years 1.Harmonisation
3.Sustainable Energy
26 2007 3,000,000 € Strengthening of the INOGATE Technical Secretariat (ITS) in support of the Baku Initiative NIS Tendering in progress. 3 years 5.Administration  
27 2008 5,000,000 € Pre-investment project for the implementation of the Trans-Caspian - Black Sea Gas Corridor NIS Project approved. To be forecast. ToR to be prepared. 3 years 2.Safety & security 4.Investment  
28 2008 5,000,000 € Energy Saving Initiative in the Building Sector in the Eastern European and Central Asian countries (ESIB) NIS Project approved. To be forecast. ToR to be prepared. 4 years 3.Sustainable Energy  
  Ongoing project
  Project halted/dropped

NIS - newly independent states, RF - Russian Federation, E.E. - Eastern Europe


I.3.8. World Wildlife Fund

Lower Danube Green Corridor

I.3.9. River Basin Programs







I.3.10. Implemented and running activities related to Marine Litter problem (example from Bulgaria, Marine Litter Report,

Project name Years Executing body Sponsor
Yearly campaign “Beach watch” for cleaning up of beaches since 1996 (ongoing) NGOs, local authorities, BSBD  
Scientific conferences and meetings on Black Sea environmental problems, Black Sea International Conference (Varna) since 1999 (ongoing)  BNAWQ Various sources
Capacity building of basin directorates in Bulgaria 2000 BMEW EU
Waste water treatment plant Obzor–Byala 2000   EU
Establishment of regional landfills - Sozopol 2001–2008 BMEW EU, ISPA
Bulgarian Vessel Traffic Management and Information System, Phase 1Vessel Traffic Management and Information System, Phase 2 2002–2004 ongoing BMT EU Phare
Waste water treatment plant Meden Rudnik, Bourgas 2003–2007 BMEW EU, ISPA
Waste regional management (Bourgas, Provadia and Dobrich regions) 2003–2007 BMEW EU
Integral monitoring of the Bulgarian Black Sea coast between Durankulak and Rezovo 2004 BMEW EU
Support to the Black Sea Basin Directorate for implementation of requirements of Water Directive in relation to the monitoring system in coastal waters 2005–2006 BMEW / BSBD EU
Strengthening of the waterborne tasks of the Bulgarian Maritime Administration 2005–2006 BMT / BMA EU Phare
Establishment of port reception facilities for liquid and solid ship waste 2006–2008 BMT / BMA Various sources
Waste water treatment plant Varna–Asparuhovo and rehabilitation of urban waste water treatment plan in Varna, II stage   BMEW EU
Optimisation of national information waste system   BMEW  
Wetlands restoration and pollution reduction project   BMEW GEF
Environmental educational and awareness raising programs and initiatives ongoing NGOs, local authorities, schools, BMEW regional bodies  
International Blue Flag movement ongoing resorts, marinas  

I.3.11. Wetlands International Black Sea office projects

1. The importance of Black Sea coastal wetlands, in particular for migratory waterbirds

Duration: 10/2000-06/2003

Location: The Azov-Black Sea Wetlands of Ukraine

2. Small rivers of Ukraine: public participation in their conservation and sustainable use

Duration: 10/2000 - 02/2004

           Location: Ukraine

3. Public participation in conservation and sustainable use of Small Rivers in Ukraine; support for the River Network in Ukraine

           Duration: 10/2002 - 10/2005

           Location: Ukraine

4. Support to the Establishment of the Integrated Management Approach for the Sivash, Ukraine

           Duration: 10/2002 - 12/2004

           Location: Lake Sivash, Ukraine

5. Wetlands biodiversity conservation in Ukrainian agricultural lands

           Duration: 12/2004 - 07/2005

Location: Ukraine

6. Dnipro river corridor in Ukraine: raising public awareness and promoting participatory approach to biodiversity conservation and ecological network development

           Duration: 06/2005- 12/2007

           Location: Dnipro river basin, Ukraine

7. Indicative map for South Bug meridional river corridor

           Duration: 10/2005 - 10/2006

           Location: South Bug river basin, Ukraine

8. Toward improved water Management in Ukraine (Watermuk)

           Duration: 05/2004 - 10/2005

           Location: Dzhankoi District, Crimean Autonomous Republic, Ukraine

9. Establishing the foundations for the launch of a Black Sea Regional Initiative for the wise use of coastal wetlands (BlackSeaWet)

Duration: 05/2006 - 12/2008 (ongoing)

Location: Black Sea countries

I.4 Information Policy of the BSC (

The Information Policy Matrix is the information policy in respect to release, disclosure applied to each Information type in respect to each user group as defined below.

  Information type  
Users  5 year Report of the BSC Black Sea Commission Annual Report Raw data, unprocessed information Operational reporting, documents and drafts Final Reports and Internal Reports and Studies Financial Information Annual Audit Report
General public Unrestricted Unrestricted Fully restricted, conditional Restricted Conditional Restricted  Unrestricted
Black Sea Commissioners Unrestricted Unrestricted Unrestricted Unrestricted Unrestricted Unrestricted Unrestricted
Permanent Secretariat Unrestricted Unrestricted Unrestricted Unrestricted Unrestricted Unrestricted Unrestricted
Advisory Groups Unrestricted Unrestricted Unrestricted, possibly conditional Unrestricted Unrestricted Conditional Unrestricted
Other working groups  Unrestricted Unrestricted Unrestricted, possibly conditional Unrestricted Unrestricted Restricted Unrestricted
Focal Points Unrestricted Unrestricted Unrestricted, possibly conditional Unrestricted Unrestricted Restricted Unrestricted
Partner Organizations Unrestricted Unrestricted Restricted, conditional access Conditional Conditional Conditional Unrestricted
International Organizations Unrestricted Unrestricted Restricted, conditional Conditional Conditional Restricted Unrestricted
Scientific Community Unrestricted Unrestricted Restricted, until published Restricted Conditional Restricted Unrestricted
External Experts  Unrestricted Unrestricted Restricted, conditional Restricted Conditional Restricted Unrestricted
NGOs Unrestricted Unrestricted Restricted, conditional Restricted, conditional Conditional Restricted Unrestricted
Activity Centers Unrestricted Unrestricted Unrestricted, possibly conditional Unrestricted Unrestricted Conditional Unrestricted
Projects Unrestricted Unrestricted Restricted, conditional Conditional Unrestricted Conditional  Unrestricted

I.5.  Black Sea Publications[1]

Abaza, V., Boicenko, L., Bologa, A.S., Dumitrache, C., Moldoveanu, M., Sburlea, A., Staicu, I., Timofte, F., 2006. Biodiversity structure from the Romanian marine area. Cercetari marine – Recherches marines, INCDM Constanta, 36, in press.

Bakan, G., Büyükgüngör, H. 2000. The Black Sea, Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 41, Elsevier Science, No. 1-6, pp, 24-43.

Barale, v., Cipollini, P., Davidov, A., Melin, F. 2002. Water Constituents in the North-western Black Sea from Optical Remote Sensing and In situ Data, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 54, 309-320.

Birkun, A.A., Jr., Krivokhizhin, S.V., Glazov, D.M., Shpak, O.V., Zanin, A.V., Mukhametov, L.M. 2004. Abundance estimates of cetaceans in coastal waters of the northern Black Sea: Results of boat surveys in August-October 2003. P.64-68 in: Marine Mammals of the Holarctic: Collection of Scientific Papers after the 3rd Internat. Conf. (Koktebel, Ukraine, 11-17 October 2004). Moscow, 609pp.

Birkun, A., Jr. 2005. Cetacean wintering habitats in the Black Sea: Bottlenose dolphins spend the cold season separately from harbour porpoises and common dolphins. FINS (the Newsletter of ACCOBAMS), 2(1):15. [].

Bodeanu, N., 2002. Algal blooms in Romania Black Sea waters in the last two decades of the XX Century. Cercetari marine - Recherches marines, 34: 7-22p

Boltachev, A.R., Yurakhno, V.M. 2002. The new information about proceeding of Mediterranization of Black Sea ichthyofauna. Journal of Ichthyology., vol. 42, 6: 744-750.

Boltachev, A.R., Danilyuk, O.N., Pakhorukov, N.P. 2003. On the Invasion of the Sunfish Lepomis macrochirus (Perciformes, Centrarchidae) into Inland Waters of Crimea. Jornal of Ichthyology, vol.43, 9: 820-822.

Boltachev, A.R., Danilyuk, O.N., Pakhorukov, N.P., Bonderev, V.A. 2006. Distribution and Certain Features of the Morphology and Biology of the Stone Moroco Pseudorasbora parva (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae) in the Waters of Crimea. Journal of Ichthyology, vol.46, 1: 58-63.

Chikina M.V., Kucheruk N.V. 2005. Long-term changes in the structure of coastal benthic communities in the northeastern part of the Black Sea: influence of alien species // Oceanology. V. 45. № 1. pp. S176-S182. [ in Russian]

Churilova T., G. Berseneva, L.Georgieva. 2004. Variability in bio-optical characteristics of phytoplankton in the Black Sea. Oceanology, 44(2): 192-204 (translated from “Okeanologia”).

Churilova T., G. Berseneva. 2004. Light absorption by suspended particles, phytoplankton, detritus and dissolved organic matter in coastal region of Crimea (July-August 2002) Marine Hydrophysical Journal - N 4 - P. 39-50.

Dachev, V., E. Trifonova, M. Stancheva. 2005. Monitoring of the Bulgarian Black Sea Beaches. Maritime Transportation and Exploitation of Ocean and Coastal Resources. Guedes Soares, Garbatov & Fonseca (Eds.) Taylor & Francis Group / Balkema. pp. 1411–1416.

Daskalov G. M., Rodionov S., Grishin A., Mihneva V. 2005. Ecosystem regime shifts and fisheries management in the Black Sea. In (eds. V. Velikova, N. Chipev) Large-scale disturbances (regime shifts) and recovery in aquatic ecosystems: challenges for management towards sustainability", 13-17 June 2005, Varna, Bulgaria.

Dorofeev V., G. Korotaev, 2004. Assimilation of the satellite altimetry data in the eddy-resolving model of the Black Sea circulation. Marine Hydrophys. Journ., N1, pp. 52-68 (in Russian)

Dorofeev, V. 2004. Assimilation of satellite measurements of the Black Sea surface temperature in the circulation model. // Ecological safety of the near coastal and shelf zones and multipurpose utilization of the shelf resources. — Sevastopol: ECOSI-Hydrophysics. v. 11. — p. 24 – 30.

Egorov, V.N., Polikarpov, G.G., Osvath, I., Stokozov, N.A., Gulin, S.B., Mirzoyeva N.Yu. 2002. The Black Sea radioecological response to the 90Sr and 137Cs contamination after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Marine Ecological J., 1(1), 5-15. (In Russian).

Egorov, V.N., Polikarpov, G.G., Stokozov, N.A., Mirzoeva N. Yu. 2005. Estimation of 90Sr and 137Cs transfer from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean basin after Chernobyl NPP accident. Marine Ecological J., 4(4), 33-41.

Eremeev,V.N., L.I. Ivanov, S.K. Konovalov, A.S. Samodurov. 2001. Role of oxygen, sulphides, nitrates and ammonium in formation of hydrocmemical strycture of the main pycnocline and anaerobic zone of the Black Sea. Marine Hydrophysical Journal. 1:64- 82.

Eremeev, V.N., Efimov, V.V., Suvorov, A.M., Shokurov, M.V. 2001. Anomalous climate tendency of Black sea temperature. Dopovidy NAN Ukrainy. 11: 91-96, (in Russian).

Eremeev, V., E. Horton , P-M.Poulain 2002. Black Sea Drifting Buoy Experiment: Results and Perspective. Argos forum. Special Ocean observation. No.59, France. P.12-17.

Eremeev, V.N., Zuev, G.V. 2005. Fish resources of the Black Sea: long-term dynamics, regime of exploitation and perspectives of management. Marine ecological journal, vol. IV, N 2: 5-21 (in Russian).

[2]Feyzioglu A. M., Kurt, I., Boran, M. ve Sivri, N. 2004. Abundance and distribution df Synechococcus spp in the South-Eastern Black Sea during of 2001 summer, IJMS, Vol 33 (4), Pp 365-368,.

Finenko, Z. Z T. Ya. Churilova, M. Sosik, and O. Bastyurk. 2002. Variability of Photosynthetic parameters of the surface phytoplankton in the Black Sea Okeanology, vol.42 (1), pp. 60-75

Finenko G. A., Romanova Z. A., Abolmasova G. I., Anninsky B. E., Svetlichny L. S., Hubareva E. S., L. Bat, Kideys A. E., 2003. Population dynamics, ingestion, growth and reproduction rates of the invader Beroe ovata and its impact on plankton community in Sevastopol Bay, the Black Sea. J. Plankton Res., v.25, 5, 539-549.

Finenko Z.Z., T. Ya. Churilova,H. M. Sosik. 2004. Vertical distribution of phytoplankton photosynthetic characteristics in the Black Sea. Oceanology, Vol. 44, No. 2, P. 205–218 (translated from “Okeanologia”).

Friedrich, J., Dinkel, C., Friedl, G., Pimenov, N., Wijsman, J., Gomoiu, M. T., Cociasu, A., Popa, L. & Wehrli, B. 2002. Benthic Nutrient Cycling and Diagenetic Pathways in the North-western Black Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 54(3), 369-383.

Gomoiu M. T. 2001. Impact of naval transport development on marine ecosystems and invasive species problems. Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology, 2 (2), 475-481.

Gregoire, M. & Friedrich, J. 2004. Nitrogen budget of the northwestern Black Sea shelf inferred from modeling studies and in situ benthic measurements. Marine Ecology Progress Series 270, 15-39.

Gregoire, M. & Lacroix, G. 2003. Exchange processes and nitrogen cycling on the shelf and continental slope of the Black Sea Basin. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 17(2), 1073, doi:10.1029/2002GB001882.

Gubanova A. D., Polikarpov I. G., Saburova M. A., Prusova I. Yu. 2002. Long-term dynamic of mesozooplankton community in the Sevastopol Bay (1976 - 1996) as exemplified by Copepoda. Oceanology, 42, 4. P. 537-545 (in Russian & English).

Gubanova A. D. 2003. Long-term changes in the species composition and abundance of copepods of genera Acartia DANA in the Sevastopol Bay. In: V.N. Eremeev and A.V. Gaevskaya (eds.): Modern of biological diversity in near-shore zone of Crimea (the Black Sea sector). Ekosi-Gidrophizika, Sevastopol. P. 94-100 (in Russian).

Gucü, A.C. 2002. Can Overfishing be Responsible for the Successful Establishment of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Black Sea? Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, N 54: 439–451.

Gulin, S. B., Polikarpov, G. G., Egorov, V. N., Martin, J. M., Korotkov, A. A. & Stokozov, N. A. 2002. Radioactive Contamination of the North-western Black Sea Sediments. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 54(3), 541-549.

Ignatyeva O.G., Romanov A.S., Ovsyany E.I., Konovalov S.K. 2004. The Carbonate System of the Sevastopol Bayin 1998-2001 // A Gateway to Sustainable Development. Proceeding of the 30th International Conference Pacem in Maribus. October 27-30, 2003, Kiev, Ukraine. Sevastopol, 688-692 pp.

Ivanov L.I., Samodurov A.S. 2001. The role of lateral fluxes in ventilation of the Black Sea. Journal of Marine Systems, 31, 159-174.

Kamburska L., 2004. Effects of Beroe cf ovata on gelatinous and other zooplankton along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. In: H. Dumont et al. (eds.). Aquatic invasions in the Black, Caspian, and Mediterranean Seas, NATO ASI Series, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 137-154.

Kideys, A.E., Romanova, Z. 2001. Distribution of gelatinous macrozooplankton in the southern Black Sea in 1996-1999. Mar. Biol., 139, 535-547.

Kideys, A.E., Kovalev, A.V., Shulman, G.E. et al. 2000. A review of zooplankton investigations of the Black Sea over the last decade. J. Mar. Syst., N 24: 355–371.

Kideys, A. E., 2002. Fall and rise of the Black Sea Ecosystem. Science, 209, 1482-1483.

Kononets M.Yu., Pakhomova S.V., Rozanov A.G., Proskurnin M.A. 2002. Determination of Soluble Iron Species in Seawater using Ferrozine // J. Anal. Chem. V. 57. P. 586–589.

Konovalov S.K., J.W.Murray. 2001. Variations in the chemistry of the Black Sea on the time scale of decades (1960-1995). Journal of Marine Systems, 2001, Vol. 31/1-3, pp 217-243

Konovalov, S.K., Luther G.W., Friederich G.E., Nuzzio D.B., Tebo B.M., Murray J.W., Oguz T., Glazer B, Trouwborst R.E., Clement B., Murray K.J., Romanov A.S. 2003. Lateral injection of oxygen with the Bosporus plume-fingers of oxidizing potential in the Black Sea. Limnology and Oceanography, V 48, pp. 2369-2376. (a)

Korotaev, G., O.A. Saenko, C.J. Koblinsky. 2001. Satellite altimetry observations of the Black Sea level. Journ. Geoph. Res. V.106 N C1 pp 917-933.

Korotaev, G., Oguz, T., Nikiforov, A., Koblinsky, C. 2003. Seasonal, interannual and mesoscale variability of the Black sea upper layer circulation derived from altimeter data. J. Geoph. Res., 108 (C4): 3122-3130.

Korotaev G., V. Dorofeev, T. Smirnova, 2004. Accuracy of the diagnosis of surface currents in the system of the Black Sea satellite monitoring. In: “Ecological Security of Coastal and Shelf Zone and Complex use of Shelf Resources”, V.11, Sevastopol, pp. 75-92 (in Russian).

Krivosheya, V., V. G. Yakubenko , and A. Yu. Skirta. 2002. Characteristic Features of Water Dynamics and Hydrological Structure in the Northeastern Black Sea during the Spring—Summer Period of 2002. Okeanologiya 44 (2), 1-8, [Oceanology 44 (2), 149-155 (2002)].

Kuipers, M.M.M., A.O.Sliekers, G. Lavik et al. 2003. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by anammox bacteria in the Black Sea. Nature 422:608-611.

Lazorenko G.E.; Polikarpov G.G. and Boltachev A.R. 2002. Natural Radioelement Polonium in Primary Ecological Groups of Black Sea Fishes. Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 28, № 1, 52-56.

Maldonado C.; Bayona J.M. 2002. Organochlorine Compounds in the North-western Black Sea Water: Distribution and Water Column Process. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 54 (3), 527-540.

Mee, L. D., Friedrich, J. & Gomoiu, M.-T. 2005. Restoring the Black Sea in times of uncertainty. Oceanography 18(2), 32-43.

Micu, S., Abaza V., 2004. Changes in biodiversity of decapods (Decapoda, Crustacea) from the Romanian Black Sea Coast. Ann. Sci. Univ. Al. I. Cuza, Iasi, s. Biologie animala, Tom L: 17-26.

Moldoveanu, M., Timofte F. 2004. Signs of marine ecosystem rehabilitation along the Romanian Black Sea littoral identified by zooplankton indicator after 1994. Cercetari Marine-Recherches marines, INCDM Constanta, 35: 87-108.

Moncheva S., V. Doncheva, G. Shtereva, L. Kamburska et al. 2002. Application of Eutrophication Indices for Assessment of the Bulgarian Black Sea Coastal Ecosystem Ecological Quality. Water Science and Technology Water Science and Technology, 46,8,19-28.

Multidisciplinary Studies of the Northeastern Part of Black Sea. 2002. Eds. A. G. Zatsepin and M. V. Flint (Nauka, Moscow), [in Russian].

Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea. Similarities and differences of two interconnected basins. 2003. A. Yilmaz (eds.). - Ankara: Tubitak publishers. P. 545-557.

Oguz, T., J.W. Murray and A. Callahan. 2001. Simulation of Suboxic-Anoxic interface zone structure in the Black Sea. Deep Sea Research, I, 48, 761-787.

Oguz, T., T. Cokacar, P. Malanotte-Rizzoli and H. W. Duclov. 2003. Climatic warming and accompanying changes in the ecological regime of the Black Sea during 1990s. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 17(3), 1088, doi: 10.1029/2003GB002031.

Oguz T., S. Tugrul, A. Kideys, V. Ediger, N. Kubilay. 2004. Phisical and biogeochemical characteristics of the Black Sea. In: The Sea, v. 14 (Eds. A. Robinson and K. Brink), 1331–1368.

Oguz T. 2005. Black Sea ecosystem response to climatic teleconnections. Oceanography, Special issue features: Oceanography, vol.18, 2, 122-133.

Oguz T. 2005. Long-term impacts of anthropogenic forcing on the Black Sea ecosystem. Oceanography, Special issue features: Black Sea Oceanography, vol. 18, 2, 112-121.

Oguz, T., S. Tugrul, A.E. Kideys, V. Ediger, N. Kubilay. 2005. Physical and biogeochemical characteristics of the Black Sea. The Sea, Vol. 14, Chapter 33, 1331-1369.

Osadchaya, T., E.I. Ovsyaniy, R. Kemp, A.S. Romanov, O.G. Ignatyeva. 2003. Organic carbon and oil hydrocarbons in bottom sediments of the Sevastopol Bay(The Black Sea). //Marine ecological journal, V II, №2, 94-101 pp.

Ovsyaniy, E., A.S. Romanov, O.G. 2003. Ignatyeva. Distribution of trice metals in surface laer of bottom sediments of the Sevastopol Bay(the Black Sea) //Marine ecological journal, V II, №2, 85-93 pp. (in Russian).

Panin, N., Jipa, D. 2002. Danube River Sediment Input and its Interaction with North-western Black Sea, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Sciences, 54,551-562.

Paraschiv, G. - M., Gomoiu, M. - T. 2001. New Species of Cnidaria in the Black Sea: Halamohydra sp., Stylocoronella sp., interstitial Fprms at the Mid-Littoral Sandy Beaces; GeoEcoMarina 5-6: 53-58.

Polonskiy A.B. and E.A. Lovenkova. 2003. On climatic characteristics of temperature and salinity in the deep-water layers of the Black Sea. Morskoy gidrofizicheskiy zhurnal, 4, 47-57 (in Russian)

Polonskiy A.B. and E.A. Lovenkova. 2004. Trend of temperature and salinity of seasonal layer in the Black Sea in the second half of ХХ age and it possible reasons. Izvestiya RAN. Fizika atmosfery i okeana, 40, 832-841 (in Russian)

Polonsky A., Basharin D., Voskresenskaya E., Worley S., Yurovsky A. 2004. Relationship between North Atlantic oscillation, Euro-Asian climate anomalies and Pacific variability // Pacific Oceanography. V.2. -N1-2. -Р.52-66

Poulain P.-M., Barbanti R., Motyzhev S., Zatsepin A. 2005. Statistical description of the Black Sea near-surface circulation using drifters in 1993-2003 // Deep-Sea Research. V.52. P.2250-2274.

Rass, T.S. 2001. The Black Sea region and its productivity. Journal of Ichthyology, 41. N 6: 742-749 (in Russian).

Reschke, S., Ittekkot, V. & Panin, N. 2002. The Nature of Organic Matter in the Danube River Particles and North-western Black Sea Sediments. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 54(3), 563-574.

Revkov N.K., Kolesnikova E.A., Valovaya N.A., Mikhailova T.V., Mazlumian S.A. and Shalyapin V.K. 2000. Benthos of coastal zone of southern Crimea (Balaklava - Aya Cape): composition and state // Hydrobiology Journal. 36(4): 3–10. (In Russian).

Revkov N.K., Nikolaenko T.V. 2002. Biodiversity of zoobenthos in the coastal zone of the south coast of Crimea (Laspi Bay) // Russian Journal of Marine Biology. 2002. 28(3): 151–162.

Revkov N.K. 2003. The long-term changes of zoobenthos over the soft bottoms in the southwest Crimea region // Modern condition of biological diversity in near-shore zone of Crimea (the Black Sea sector). Sevastopol: Ekosi-Gidrophizika. P. 222–228. (In Russian).

Rozanov, A.G., I.I. Volkov. 2002. Manganise in the Black Sea. In: Complex investigations of the north-east Black Sea. Eds. Zatsepin, A.G. and Flint M.V. Science: Moscow. pp. 190-200.

Saliot, A., Parrish, C.C., Sadouni, N.,Boulobassi, I., Fillaux, J.,Cauwet, G. 2002. Transport and fate of Danube Delta terrestrial organic matter in the Northwest Black Sea mixing zone, Marine Chemistry, 79, 243-259.

Sezgin, M., Kocatas, A., Katagan, T. 2001. Amphipod Fauna of the Turkish Central Black Sea Region, Turk J Zool.: 57 - 61.

Shiganova, T. A, Bulgakova J. V., Sorokin P.Y., Lukashev Y. F. 2000. Investigation of a new invader Beroe ovata in the Black Sea. Biol. Bull 27: 247-255.

Shiganova, T.A, Mirzoyan Z.A, Studenikina E. A., Volovik S.P., Siokoi-Frangou I., Zervoudaki S., Christou ED, Skirta A.Y., H. Dumont. 2001. Population development of the invader ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Black Sea and other seas of the Mediterranean basin. Mar. Biol. 139: 431-445.

Shulman, G.E., Yu.N. Tokarev. 2006. The functional diversity as important factor of the ecosystems biotic components existence // Marine ecological journal. 5, №.1. - С. 35-56 (in Russian)..

Sorokin, Yu. I. 2002. Black Sea Ecology and Oceanography, Backhuys Publishers, Amsterdam.

Stelmakh, L.V., Gubanov V. I. and Babich I. I. 2004. Seasonal variations of phytoplankton growth rate and its limitation by nutrients in coastal waters of the Black Sea near Sevastopol. Mar.Ecol.J., 3 (4), p. 55 - 73.

Stelmakh, L.V.and Babich I.I. 2003. Seasonal variation of the organic carbon to chlorophyll “a” ratio for phytoplankton in coastal waters off the Black Sea in the region of Sevastopol. Okeanologiya, 43, p.875 - 884.

Titov, V.B. 2004. Integral effect of influence of thermal and dynamic factors of atmosphere on the hydrological structure of the Black Sea waters. Okeanologiya, 44, 837-842 (in Russian).

Tokarev, Yu.N., E.P. Bityukov, V.I. Vasilenko, B.G. Sokolov. 2000. The bioluminescence field as a characteristic index of the Black Sea plankton community structure // Ecology of sea (Ecologiya morya). N53. -P.20-26 (in Russian).

Tokarev, Yu. N. 2001. Biophysical ecology of plankton - first results and perspectives of development // Ecology of sea (Ecologiya morya). N. 57. - P. 51 - 59 (in Russian).

Tokarev, Yu. N., B. G. Sokolov. 2001. Effect of physical and biological factors on forming of small-scale bioluminescent and acoustic fields in the Black and Mediterranean seas // Hydrobioljgocheskii Jurnal. -31. - Р. 3-13 (in Russian).

Tokarev, Yu.N., B.G. Sokolov, V.I. Vasilenko. 2002. Biophysical research methods for living pelagic resource: first results and perspectives // Ukrainian Antactic Centre Bulletin. 4. - P. 104 - 111.

Topcuoglu, S., Güven, K.C., Kırbasoglu, Ç., Güngör, N., Ünlü S., Yılmaz, Y.Z. 2001. Heavy metals in marine algae from Imageile in the Black Sea, 1994–1997. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 67,. 288–294.

Ünal, V. 2004. Viability of Trawl Fishing Fleet in Foça (the Aegean Sea), Turkey and Some Advices to Central Management Authority. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 4, 93-97.

Velikova, V., Cociasu, A., Popa, L., Boicenco, L., Petrova, D. 2005. Phytoplankton community and hydrochemical characteristics of the Western Black Sea. J. Water Science Techn. Vol. 79, N 6, p.77-87. (in English).

Velikova, V. and N. Chipev (Eds.). 2005. Large-scale disturbances (regime shifts) and recovery in aquatic ecosystems: challenges for management towards sustainability. Unesco-Roste/BAS Workshop on Regime Shifts, 14 -16 June, Varna. (in English).

Volovik S. P. (Editor). 2004. Ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi (A. Agassiz) in the Azov and Black Seas: its biology and consequences of its intrusion. Published by Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Istanbul, Turkey. Pubication number: 17. 498 p.

Yakushev, E., D. E. Besedin, Yu. F. Lukashov, and V. K. Chasovnikov. 2001. On the Rise of the Upper Boundary of the Anoxic Zone in the Density Field of the Black Sea in 1999-2000,” Okeanologiya 41 (5), 686-691 [Oceanology 41 (5), 654-659].

Yunev, O. A., Vladimir, Basturk, O., Yilmaz, A., Kideys, A. E., Moncheva, S. and Konovalov, S. K. 2002. Long-term variation of surface chlorophyll a and primary production in the open Black Sea. Marine ecology progress series, Vol. 230: pp 11-28.

Zaitsev, Y. et al. (Eds.). 2006. The North-Western part of the Black Sea: Biology and Ecology. Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 703pp. (in Russian).

Zaitsev, Yu.P. 2000. The Black Sea: state of ecosystem and the ways of its melioration. Odessa: Izd. Molodezh. Ecolog. Tsentr im. V.I. Vernadskogo., 48 pp., (in Russian).

Zaitsev, Yu, Ozturk, B. (eds). 2001. Exotic species in the Aegean, Marmara, Black, Azov and Caspian Seas. Istanbul, Turkey : Turkish Marine ReSearch Foundation., 8: 267 pp., (in Russian).

Zaitsev, Y.P. 2006. An Introduction to the Black Sea Ecology. Even, Odessa, 224pp. (In Russian).

Zatsepin A.G., Denisov E.S., Kremenetskiy V.V. 2005. Effect of bottom slope and wind on the near-shore current in a rotating stratified fluid: laboratory modeling for the Black Sea // Oceanology. V. 45. Suppl. 1. P.S13-S26.

Zatsepin, A.G., Ginzburg, A.I., Kostianoy, A.G. 2002. Variability of water dynamics in the northeastern Black Sea and its effect on water exchange between the nearshore zone and open basin // Oceanology. V.42. Suppl. 1. P.S1--S15.

Zatsepin, A.G., Ginzburg, A.I., Kostianoy, A.G. 2003. Observations of Black Sea Mesoscale Eddies and Associated Horizontal Mixing // J. Geophys. Res. V.108. №C8. 3246. doi; 10.1029/2002JC001390.

Zengin, M. 2003. The Current Status of Turkey's Black Sea Fisheries and Suggestions on the Use of Those Fisheries, Workshop on Responsible Fisheries in the Black Sea and the Azov Sea, and Case of Demersal Fish Resources, April 15-17 2003, Şile, Istanbul, BSEP Black Sea Environmental Programme, Country Report, 34 p.

I.6. Socio-economic indicators

Figure 1.6.1. Population growth in Black Sea riparian countries

Figure 1.6.2.a, b. GDP per capita and annual change


Figure 1.6.3. Human Development Index for the Black Sea coastal states (UNDP HDR 2007/2008)



Figure 1.6.4. GDP per unit of Energy Use (UNDP - HDR 2007/2008)

1.7. List of BSC Regional Guidelines/Manuals

1.7. List of BSC Regional Guidelines/Manuals         

I.7.1. Harmonization of biological methodologies Phytoplankton (compiled by S. Moncheva) Mesozooplankton (compiled by A. Korshenko, based on HELCOM manual) Macrozoobenthos (compiled by Valentina Todorova and Tsenka Konsulova) Meiobenthos (compiled by Ludmila Vorobyova) Mussel population watch (compiled by Nina Shurova and Valentin Zolotorev) Macrophytobenthos (compiled by Galina Minicheva) Mapping of Habitats of Black Sea importance (compiled by Valeria Abaza) Gelatinous macrozooplankton (compiled by Tamara Shiganova)

I.7.2. Environmental Safety Aspects of Shipping Management of Dredged Materials (Modified from OSPAR Guidelines) Oil spill exercises Reporting Oil Spills


[1] Selected Black Sea publications mostly cited in the region

[2] Comprehensive overview of Turksih bibliography, including the period after 2000 was prepared and published in 2007: Citation: Bat, L. And Sezgin, S. (eds.) 2007. Turkish Black Sea Bibliography. 2nd Edition. Published by Turkish Marine Research Foundadtion, Istanbul, Turkey. Publication number 28.