The Europaen Commission The Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution
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Report Contents

Acknowledgements 1. Introduction 2 Challenges 3 The Basis for Cooperative Action 4 Policy Actions Conclusions
Annex I. Basis for Cooperative Measures Annex II. Policy Actions Annex III. LBS Report 2007: Land Based Pressures on the Black Sea Annex VI. Nationally Reported Date Annex V. Black Sea Monitoring And Assessment Program
List of Tables List of Figures

Implementation of the Strategic Action Plan for the Rehabilitation and Protection of the Black Sea

2002 - 2007

Implementation of the Strategic Action Plan for the Rehabilitation and Protection of the Black Sea

Annex IV: Nationally reported data

(see also BSIMAP and BSIS in Inf&Resources)

Reporting of PMA and LBS AG: Pollution, Monitoring and Assessment/Land Based Sources and cross-cutting issues with other Advisory Groups reporting (CBD, FOMLR, CBD and ICZM)

Contaminant important to be monitored Policy questions addressed BSIMAP Activity Action by Actions in 2007-2011undertaken already and planned
Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu What are the loads of trace metals from land-based sources of pollution? Are agreed measures effective in reducing pollution? 1.Monitor discharges and estimate riverine, direct industrial and municipal loads  2. Regularly update the list of hot spots AG LBS  To improve the reporting formatTo improve/quality check the regional database on land-based pollution dischargesTo compile national meta data on all industrial and municipal sources of pollution in the coastal BS zoneTo develop set of indicatorsto continue harmonizing monitoring strategies 
  What are the concentrations in water, sediments and biota? 1. Monitor concentrations in water, sediment and biota  AG PMA To improve the format and procedure for information exchangeTo quality check the regional pollution monitoring databaseTo develop background values and assessment criteria for nvironmental qualityTo sustain the regional quality assurance and quality control system To develop set of indicators for reporting on the state of the Black Sea environmentTo outline trendsTo continue harmonizing the methods used and national monitoring strategies 
Pesticides What are the levels of pesticides in the water, sediments and biota? Monitor concentrations in water, sediments and biota AG PMA, LBS To assess the scope of problem for the Black Sea by random sampling in the vicinity of major sourcers of organotin pollution (say major ship routes)
PCBs (not reported by the BS states) What are loads of PCBs in the Black Sea Up to now not being included in the national reporting, to promote such observations needed AG LBS To compile national data if available: inventory of PCBs sources and preliminary assessment of loads, including riverrine inputs
  What are the concentration of PCBs in marine biota (including mammals) and bottom sediments Needed pilot monitoring of PCBs levels in bottom sediments and biota and decision on their relevance for regional monitoring program AG PMA   To propose including sampling for PCBs
PAHs Which are the major sources and how large are the inputs 1. To update the list of pollution sources  2. To assess input of PAHs from different pollution sources AG LBS AG PMA Further compile and quality check data on PAHs loads where available 
  What are the concentrations in water, sediments and biota 1. To carry out the screening of the levels of PAHs in water, biota and bottom sediments AG PMA  To include PAHs measurements in programs of cruises 2. To quality check the existing information on PAHs concentrations in water, sediments and biota and 
  Do PAHs affect fish and shellfish 1. To identify effects of contamination   1. To incorporates random sampling where possible to address the problem (feasibility study) 
NHS What chemicals are transported via the Black Sea? Up to now not being included in the national reporting AG ESAS To compile meta data on regular transportationsIllegal discharges,Accidents
Phenols What are the loads of phenols coming from land-based sources of pollution? What are their concentrations in water and sediments?  Do phenols pose risk to human health and Black Sea environment?    Conduct inventory of pollution sources of phenols, loads estimations, concentrations in water and sediments monitoring    AG LBS, PMA  To assess level of loads stemming to the marine environment To assess level and impact of phenol pollution on coastal waters and sediments To outline trends
Detergents What are the concentrations in Black Sea waters and sediments?What are the loads from rivers and other land-based sources of pollution? Monitor concentrations of detergents in coastal waters, sediments, estimate loads AG PMA To assess level of detergents in coastal waters and sediments, improve reporting  Outline trends 
Oil pollution, petroleum hydrocarbons What are the pollution sources of oil   1. To assess pollution loads of oil from land based sources and offshore installations2. Illegal discharges3. Accidents    AG LBS, ESAS Compile national information on oil pollution, include satellite investigations, improve reporting
What are the values of total petroleum hydrocarbons in water and sediments? Monitor concentrations   Identify background values, assess oil pollution, improve reporting
Radionuclides What are the trends of radionuclides in the Black Sea?  Do they pose risk to human health and Black Sea biota? 1.Monitor concentrations of radionulides in water, sediments and biota 2. Assess risk to human health and biota AG PMAIAEA 1. Assess trends 2. Improve reporting and compilation of available data
Nutrients Are agreed measures effective in reducing eutrophication?What are the levels of nutrients in water and sediments, what are the loads from rivers and other land-based sources of pollution? Monitor concentrations and discharges, assess loads of nutrients AG LBS AG PMA Quality check, improve reporting, outline indicators and trends for loads and concentrationsIntroduce monitoring of nutrients in sediments to assess the level of secondary eutrophication
Phytoplankton How often phytoplankton blooms occur? What are the areas of most frequent phytoplankton blooms?  What are the consequences for the Black Sea flora and fauna?  Monitor chlorophyll, phytoplankton abundance, biomass and species composition AG PMAAG CBD To contact JRC for satellite images,To improve reporting, to radically change the CBD reporting format
Zoobenthos What are zoobenthos communities structure and abundance? Are their state improving in comparison to previous periods? Monitor abundance, species composition AG CBD Habitats classification and mapping, outline of trends
State of other communities, endangered species What is the state of macrophytes?Do numbers of endangered species increase?  Monitor abundance AG CBD  Red data book update
Sources and occurrence What are the sources of litter, its amount, and areas of its occurrence Continue assessing the scope of the problem in the Black Sea region AG ESASAG LBS 1. Include some observations in the GEF cruises   
Effects on birds and marine organisms What are the effects on birds and marine organisms Not part of the monitoring system AG CBDAG FOMLR Compile information
Impact of fisheries on ecosystem What are the trends in fish catches?Which species are overfished? By catches and discards levels?  Bioaccumulation of toxic substances?  Increase in fishing fleet? monitor ichthyoparameters, assess stocks, catches, etc. AG FOMLR   AG PMA Harmonization of methodologies, improvement of the format and national reporting, improved assessments of stocks, etc. 
Mariculture   initiate regular monitoring AG FOMLR Improve reporting
Genetic disturbance What are the trends in aquaculture development? What species are cultivated?     Track the eutrophication effect of mariculture.
Transfer of diseases What diseases where reported?      
Chemicals used What chemicals were used for treatment?   AG PMA  
Habitats destruction Are destructive used in the Black Sea region? What are the reasons for habitats destruction in the Black Sea? Monitor via sonars, underwater video, etc. AG CBD, FOMLR Create reporting format for habitats, assess most threatened habitats at present, identify habitats of Black Sea importance to designate them as protected areas.
Exotic species What exotic species are intentionally and non-intentionally introduced Monitor exotic species  AG FOMLRAG CBD Road map for implementation of the BWM Convention, improve reporting
  What are risks and vectors of introduction of new exotic species Assess risks and vectors of introduction of new exotic species    
Microbiological indicators What is the quality of bathing waters in terms of bacteriological pollution Monitor bacteriological parameters AG LBS  To better compile national information on the quality of bathing waters, develop indicators and visualization on the WEB page of the BSC 
Atmospheric pollution What is the level of atmospheric pollution?Which areas are mostly polluted? Up to now very poorly reported AG PMA, LBS Improve reporting format, become end-user of PROMOTE project
Diffuse courses of pollution What is the level of nutrients and pollutants entering the Black Sea from diffuse sources of pollution? Up to now not reported, and not being assessed AG LBS, ICZM Develop guideline for inventory, classification and assessment of diffuse sources of pollution, starting with nutrients. Development of models or adoption of available ones.

Reporting of CBD AG (Conservation of Biodiversity Advisory Group)

What and when exotic species are registered in your country
What international or bilateral agreements relevant to conservation of biological diversity are signed/ratified by your state?
Backterioplankton abundance and biomass
Phytoplankton abundance, biomass, predominating groups
Zooplankton, including opportunistic species
Macrophytes, abundance, biomass, species, indicators spesies
Macrozoobenthos, abundance and biomass by major groups, predominating species
What species are in the national RED Data Book?
When the National Red Data Book has been updated
Is enforcement of the ban on hunting marine mammals effective in your country?
What assessments of the marine mammals were conducted in your country
How often you communicate with the Activity Center on Conservation of Biological Diversity in Batumi, Georgia
What national centers/sanctuaries/dolphinaria do you have in your country!
What Projects/Programs/Studies on biodiversity of coastal zone and marine waters were conducted in your country
International or bilateral agreements signed or ratified for the conservation of habitat and landscape
Conservation areas in the Black Sea including coastal zone and wetlands
National policies, regulations, action plans for conservation biological and landscape diversity
What Agencies are responsible for management of protected areas
What are national instruments for management of conservation areas
How are authorities that manage conservation areas equipped and staffed
What public awareness campaigns were developed for conservation areas
What scientific publications were of Black Sea importance were published in your country

Reporting of FOMLR AG (Fishery and other Marine Living Resources Management)

The group reports on:

1. Legislation and strategies development, institutions involved

2. Aqua and mariculture activities in terms of:

Fish restocking farms and species cultivated

Mussel and fish rearing

Norms and impacts

Socio-economic indicators (poorly reported)


3. Fishing Fleet

4. Employment and other socio-economic indicators poorly reported.

5. Fishing gears

6. Fish processing

7. Fishing areas and seasons

8. By-catch and discard

9. Landings

10. Stocks

Reporting of LBS AG: Land Based Sources of Pollution

Riverine loads agreed determinants

Black Sea Rivers      
   UNITS Number of observations ( to be included) Regional Agreement from October 2006
Dissolved oxygen     Changed
Nitrate (N-NO3) kilotonnes    
Nitrite (N-NO2) kilotonnes    
Orthophosphate kilotonnes    
Total Nitrogen kilotonnes    
Total Phosphorus kilotonnes    
Ammonia kilotonnes    
Zinc (Zn) - Dissolved     add
Copper (Cu) - Dissolved     add
Chromium (Cr) - Dissolved     add
Lead (Pb) - Dissolved     add
Cadmium (Cd) - Dissolved     add
Mercury (Hg) - Dissolved     add
Nickel (Ni) - Dissolved     add
Total Zinc tonnes    
Total Copper tonnes    
Total Chromium tonnes    
Total Lead tonnes    
Total Cadmium tonnes   Changed
Total Mercury tonnes   Changed
Total Nickel tonnes   Changed
Lindane (instead of Gamma-HCH) tonnes not reported usually Changed
TSS (instead of Suspended Particulate Matter) kilotonnes   Changed
Total Hydrocarbons kilotonnes not reported usually Changed
Anionic active surfactants (instead of detergents) kilotonnes   Changed
Phenols kilotonnes not reported usually  
PCB-28 tonnes not reported usually  
PCB-52 tonnes not reported usually  
PCB-101 tonnes not reported usually  
PCB-118 tonnes not reported usually  
PCB-153 tonnes not reported usually  
PCB-138 tonnes not reported usually  
PCB-180 tonnes not reported usually  
Total PCBs tonnes not reported usually  
Other Hazardous Substances (please give name and CAS No) tonnes   To be removed
BOD-7 kilotonnes not reported To be removed
BOD-5 kilotonnes    
COD-Mn kilotonnes   To be removed
COD-Cr kilotonnes    
TOC kilotonnes    
AOX kilotonnes    
Tritium Bq not reported usually  
Other Radionuclides (please name) Bq not reported usually  
Average Riverine Flow for the Year m3/sec    
Long Term Annual Average Riverine Flow m3/sec    

   Industrial loads (same determinands)

   Municipal Loads (same determinands)

   Green-house gases (same determinands)

   Accidental pollution (same determinands)

   Waste Waters, as follows:

Total amount of waste waters discharged into the Black Sea
Amount of insufficiently treated water
Amount of untreated waters

The group reports also on policy and legislation development.

ICZM AG (Integrated Coastal Zone Management Advisory Group)

The AG reports on the state of the coast, coastal management and ICZM policies/legislation development.

Reported Area (km2):    
Reporting Organization:    
Owner of Data:    
    Here please insert rows if you have more than one procedure to add.
Intersectoral Coordinating Mechanisms Existence of legal procedures for coordination of coastal management decisions Name/
Intersectoral Coordinating Bodies Existence of bodies for coordination of coastal management decisions Name/
Legal Planning Mechanisms for Coastal Territorial Management Existence of legal planning procedures for coordination of coastal management decisions Name/
Integrated Permitting Procedures for Coastal Territorial Management Existence of legal integrated permitting procedures for coordination of coastal management decisions Name/
Legal Basis Guaranteeing the Public Access to the Sea Legal document - normative act guaranteeing that all the coastal line is free for the access of the public Name/
Type of indicator Indicators UNITS
Population and Geography Administrative organization of coastal zone  
a) total no. of cities No.
b) no of cities over 100 000 inhabitants No.
c) no of cities over 1000 000 inhabitants No
d) total no of rural settlements No.
Total inland area of coastal zone (if is defined) km2
Total sea area of coastal zone km2
Number of population Thousands pers.
Population density in coastal regions  
a)   out of the touristic season inhabitant/km2
b)   in the touristic season inhabitant/km2
Birth rates persons per thousand
Mortality persons per thousand
Morbidity persons per thousand
Working people thousands
Unemployment thousands
Retired people thousands
Average Age of population years
Children under 18 years old thousands
Population growth in Black Sea coastal region (natural increase, natural decrease) rate per 1000 inhabitants
Net migration rate %
Urbanization Rate %
Rural/urban residence ratio %
Total land funds use ha
a) agriculture areas ha
b) forest and other forest vegetation lands ha
c) waters and ponds ha
d) wetlands  
e) beaches (area) GDP
General land use change %
Unemployment rate %
Average Net monthly earnings Euro (or in your National currency, but giving conversion rate)
Energy Total energy consumption by fuel tones/year
Energy production/capita MW/cap/year
No of wind farms No
Water and Wastewater Public sewage network system No of localities
Drinking water supply network No of localities
Volume of drinking water supplied to consumers m3
Population with access to clean drinking water No
Length of drinking water supply network km
Population connected to WWTP (total rural+urban) %
Biodiversity Green areas Ha
Number of natural (parks) reserves and their areas No; Ha
Number of Natura 2000 site and their areas No ; ha
Number of marine protected area and their areas No ; ha
Coastal erosion Number of vulnerable areas to erosion No.
Annually beach surface eroded ha
Average rate of beach erosion /abrasion meters
Retreat of cliffs meters
Economy Regional gross domestic product Thou Euro
GDP growth % change/year
Sect oral distribution of GDP %
Tourism Touristic accommodation capacities Places/year
Touristic accommodation units in coastal zone no/year
Number of tourist arrivals  
a) National no/year
b) From abroad no/year
Number of tourist facilities conducting ecological audit No
Number of Tourist Companies Promoting GreenTourism No
Number of "Blue Flag" Beaches No
Carrying capacity of beaches sq.m per person
Number of tourist staying overnight no/year
Value of tourist expenditures Thou Euro
Health No of sanitary units  
Solid Waste Management Industrial wastes tones/year
  Hazardous industrial wastes tones/year
  Municipal wastes number
  Number of landfills tones
  Total capacity of landfills number
  Number of incineration plants tones/year
  Total capacity of incineration plants tones/year
Agriculture Total area of agricultural lands thousand ha
  Arable lands treated with mineral fertilizers thousand ha
  Fertilizers application rate kg per ha
  Arable lands treated with pesticides
  Pesticides application rate kg per ha
  Area of irrigated lands ha
  Number of animal farms No
  Number of cattle thousand heads
  Number of pigs thousand heads
  Number of sheep thousand heads
  Number of poultry thousand heads
Industry Number of metallurgic enterprises  
  Total production of metallurgic enterprises Euro (or in your National currency, but giving conversion rate)
  Number of textile enterprises  
  Total production of textile enterprises Euro
  Number of food processing enterprises  
  Total production of food processing enterprises Euro
  Number of refineries  
  Total production of refineries Euro
  Please add any other industry important in your coastal zone  
Transport Density of the public road network, km/km2
Number of airports no.
Length of rail ways km
No of harbours No
Total harbour area ha
Harbour Traffic capacity mln tones/year
  Number of oil terminals th.t
  Capacity of oil terminals th.t.per year
  Lengths of oil pipelines km
  Capacity of oil pipelines th.tones per year
  Length of gas pipelines km
  Capacity of gas pipelines mln tones/year
Climate Precipitations mm per year
  Sunshine hours per year
  Sea level rise mm


The basic problem with the ICZM reporting is that there is no definition of COASTAL ZONE. The states report in a different way: for instance Bulgaria reports for municipalities along the Black Sea coast, Georgia - almost for half of the country.

ESAS (Environmental Safety Aspects of Shipping)

The reporting of the group consists of data on:

   Ballast waters

   Oil spills (accidental, number and volume)

   Offshore installations

   Dumping and dredging

   Ports and port reception facilities

   Ships (tankers and cargo) calling at Black Sea ports and passing the Bosphorus, cargo turnover, passengers. Complience with regulations.

   Policy and legislation development

ANNEX V. Black Sea Integrated Monitoring and Assessment Program: Reported concentrations in water, sediments and biota in 2001-2005

BSIMAP data on Nutrients in Water

Water O2 O2 TSS Secchi disk BOD5 P-PO4   TP N -NH4 N - NO3   TN
Bulgaria % mg/L O2 mg/L m mg/L O2 mol/l P   mol/l N mol/l N  
Average 84.8 8.4 6.5   1.9 0.623 0.91 5.09 32.34 58.21
Max 121.0 13.5 47.0   4.0 3.05 3.07 31.21 50.71 120.71
Min 46.2 4.2 0.0   0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.57 23.21
No of samples 26 28 22   21 28 12 28 18 15
Average 87.39 8.13 19.23   1.97     5.36 6.56  
Max 180.00 17.40 350.00   4.60     15.85 12.90  
Min 54.90 4.46 1.00   0.00     0.00 0.00  
Average 82.00 8.03 10.80   1.67 0.04   0.179 19.43  
Max 116.00 15.40 40.00   2.90 0.21   3.57 49.29  
Min 46.50 4.51 1.00   0.90 0.00   0.00 0.00  
No of samples 40 40 40   38 40   38 24  
Average 76.86 7.19 15.23 1.75 1.87 0.06   11.01 1.59  
Max 132.00 14.20 28.00 5.5 4.88 0.86   39.93 37.86  
Min 52.00 4.47 6.00 0.8 0.97 0.00   0.00 0.07  
No of samples 38 38 38 38 38 38   24 38  
Average 97.48 9.17 18.00   1.75 0.11   7.11 39.21  
Max 175.00 16.10 57.00   5.50 1.11   36.99 92.86  
Min 38.10 4.16 2.00   0.80 0.00   0.00 0.00  
No of samples 38 38 38   36 38   38 28  


Water O2 BOD5 P (PO4) P total N (NH4) N (NO3) N (NO2) N, Total SiO4
Georgia mol/l mol/l mol/l mol/l mol/l mol/l mol/l mol/l mol/l
Average 190.94 49.596 0.26   6.24 2.88   ?  
Max 259.4 65.6 0.38   10.2 5.61   ?  
Min 154.7 34.38 0.18   1.12 1.38   ?  
No of samples 8 8 8   8 8   8  
Average 169.6 121.28 0.52 0.65 0.26[1] 7.17 0.10   13.84
Max 204.8 147.2 0.70[2]   0.40 8.30 0.45   15.6
Min 150.4 102.4 0.18 0.54 0.20 6.20 0.02   11.4
No of samples 20 19 14 19 19 19 19 4 22


Water O2 BOD5 P (PO4)  TP N (NH4) N (NO3) NO3-N+NO2-N  TN SiO4
Romania mol/l O2 mol/l O2 mol/l P  mol/l P mol/l N mol/l N mol/l N  mol/l N mol/l Si
Average 301.14 133.23 0.38 1.43 7.30 6.62   47.84 8.74
Max 405.5 304.6 7.23 4.32 46.05 32.68   155.3 90.7
Min 225.5 9.38 0.04 0.53 0.35 1.68   16.1 0.6
No of samples 47 49 49 12 49 49   12 49
Average 333.23 139.06 0.566   4.853 8.323     9.973
Max 546.6 392.1 15.240   47.500 71.570     79.200
Min 225.1 45.1 0.010   0.550 1.080     1.700
No of samples 116 116 116   116 116     116
Average 347.33 150.35 0.69   6.51 7.95 8.57   8.61
Max 649.40 527.90 13.36   104.60[3] 58.85[4] 61.19   44.10
Min 257.20 54.90 0.02   0.98 0.83 1.18   0.40
No of samples 94 90 88   99 99 99   99
Average 325.5 145.3 0.57   8.7 8.48 9.52   10.01
Max 543.1 408.6 5.98   101.8 51.79 53.53   114.8
Min 198.3 32.2 0.01   0.32 2.21 2.48   0.1
No of sample 84 84 86   83 83     83
Average 385.54 175.24 0.23   8.53 1.70     4.04
Max 426.24 357.12 3.40   19.06 11.70     28.25
Min 180.16 20.16 0.00   0.90 0.38     0.05
No of samples 78 62 74   74 74     71


Water O2 BOD5 P (PO4) TP N (NH4) N (NO3) N (NO2) TN SiO4
Russian Federation ml/L mg/L O2 mkg/L[5] mkg/L mkg/L mkg/l mkg/L mkg/L mkg/l
Average 6.42 0.832 7.104 14.705 12.395  42.577 2.687 274.81  494.38 
Max 8.10 2.698 27.884 92.122 40.619  248.995 6.334 715.97  1826.142 
Min 3.097 0.172 0.041 3.513 3.903  2.063 0.410 90.70  61.87 
No of samples 213 115 177 133 154  147 176 131  177
May-August 2003                  
Average 8.2   8.34   13.7 0.7 1.5   395.88
Max 9.3   8.46   29.4 1.5 3.6   560.00
Min 7.6   8.27   0.0 0.0 0.2   230.00
No of samples 8   20   8 6 8   20
Average 6.04   12.15   43.37 80.07 0.55   1999.20
Max 8.08   40.60   134.50 457.00 3.10   5644.00
Min 4.94   0.00   7.70 0.00 0.00   118.00
No of samples 6.00   6.00   6.00 6.00 6.00   6.00


Water O2 Secci H2S P (PO4) P total N (NH4) N (NO3) N, Total SiO4
Turkey mg/l O2 m mg/L mol/l P mol/l P mol/l N mol/l N mol/l N mol/l Si
Average 8.86 6.59   0.199 0.386 1.636 0.367 8.315 10.813
Max 14.67 13.7   3.85 5.78 10.793 3.777 85.081 190.927
Min 1.67 0.6   0.007 0.029 0.377 0.0095 0.988 0.004
No of Samples 836 128   835 836 836 835 836 836
Average 8.47 12.17 0.31 0.32[6] 0.31 1.84 0.35 3.76 13.06
Max 11.63 15.88 0.50 4.69 1.74 7.62 7.26 12.07 52.71
Min 0.54 7.93 0.18 0.14 0.14 0.06 0.01 2.42 0.62
No of Samples 413 415 4 414 412 415 414 412 415


Water Chlorophyll      
2004 mg/L      
Average 0.76      
Max 5.186      
Min 0.1      
No of samples 389      


Water O2 Secci BOD5 P (PO4) P total N (NH4) N (NO2) N (NO3) N total SiO4
Ukraine mg/L m mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L
Average 8.66   2.25   0.04 0.17 0.02 0.29 0.17 0.45
Max 11.30   4.40   0.06 2.23 0.43 2.00 0.52 1.04
Min 3.12   1.80   0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.04 0.01
No of samples 113   78   13 78 88 86 12 15
Average 9.05 2.48 2.28     0.11 0.01 0.22 0.38  
Max 11.30 1.70 14.00     2.05 0.22 2.20 3.45  
Min 4.80 14.00 1.00     0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  
No of samples 88 74 88     68 86 69 57  
Average 7.29   2.20 0.028 0.06 0.12 0.01 0.20 0.56 0.45
Max 10.80   6.20 0.122 0.15 1.59 0.17 2.40 1.70 0.89
Min 3.24   1.50 0 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.11 0.15
No of samples 21   98 19 17 112 116 116 17 18
Average 9.79   2.36   0.02 0.05 0.01 0.09 0.18 0.39
Max 11.07   4.60   0.03 0.22 0.06 0.37 0.18 0.43
Min 8.53   1.36   0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.18 0.35
No of samples 15   13   5 15 16 15 4 5
Average 9.00   2.40 0.016 0.04 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.37 0.29
Max 10.19   2.90 0.029 0.07 0.25 0.03 0.04 0.58 0.47
Min 7.50   1.80 0.004 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.17 0.12
No of samples 13   10 8 5 13 13 13 5 5


BSIMAP Data on Heavy Metals and Organic Micropollutants in Water

Water Cd Cu Hg Pb
Bulgaria g/l g/l g/l g/l
Average 0.13 2.07   1.07
Min 0.00 0.00   0.00
Max 2.00 6.00   8.00
No of samples 35      


Water Cd Cu Hg Pb
Georgia g/L g/L ng/L g/L
Average 41.00 4.66   0.24
Max 41.00 78.00   0.28
Min 41.00 0.07   0.21
No of samples 5.00 19.00   19.00


Water Cd Mn Cu Pb
Romania g/l g/l g/l g/l
Average 1.52 5.98 3.79 8.17
Max 2.86 14.54 10.73 32.85
Min 0.73 0.99 0.16 0.51
No of samples 18 11 18 18
Average 1.80 12.01 10.56 9.25
Max 10.97 22.29 40.80 49.95
Min 0.06 2.27 0.04 0.59
No of samples 50 30 50 39
Water DDT Lindane Petroleum Hydrocarbons PAHs
Romania g/l g/l g/l ng/l
Average 32.32 223.6 194.1702 36.87
Max 32.32 359.88 1096 103.07
Min 32.32 130.27 9.5 1.85
No of samples 1 3 51 3
Average 18.64 89.38 149.35 253.85
Max 783.00 2083.00 2268.40 993.00
Min 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.32
No of samples 42 42 96 38


Water DDT DDD DDE Lindane Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Russian Federation n/L n/L n/L n/L mg/L
Average 0 0 0 0 0.03
Max 0 0 0 0 0.09
Min 0 0 0 0 0
No of samples 0 0 0 0 6


Water Cd Cu Hg Pb Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Turkey g/l g/l g/l g/l g/L
Average 0.51 1.61 1.74 0.14 11.24
Max 0.86 3.28 7.74 1.10 77.17
Min 0.26 0.72 0.00 0.00 0.99
No of Samples 50 50 50 50 66


Water Cd Cu Hg Pb Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Ukraine g/L g/L g/L g/L g/L
Average         50
Min         50
Max         180
No         86
Average         50
Min         50
Max         60
No         96
Average         50
Min         50
Max         90
No         94
Average         50
Min         50
Max         50
No         9


BSIMAP: Heavy Metals in Bottom Sediments


Bottom Sediments Cd Cu Hg Pb
Romania mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg
Average 5.52 57.86   50.95
Max 30.19 182.96   149.45
Min 0.65 8.61   3.49
No of samples 42 43   43


Bottom Sediments Cd Cu Hg Pb
Turkey mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg
Average   69.08 68.50 27.04
Max   269.00 286.00 62.00
Min   19.00 4.00 11.00
No of Samples   50 39 49




Trace metals in Biota

Biota, mussels Pb Cd Hg
Romania g / g g / g g / g
Average 0.41 0.092  
Max 0.58 0.150  
Min 0.31 0.017  
No of samples 3 3  


APPENDIX I: Information on SQL-server on-line BSIS developed within the BSERP

The Black Sea Information System (BSIS) was a part of the Information Strategy developed within the project. BSIS was the first key element of the implementation of the Information Strategy of the Black Sea Commission. The system provides tools for reporting and communication at the international level, regional, and national level.

The implemented approach distinguishes between two sections/parts of the information system developed. These are: an internal area/system (or the loop of official reporting) and external interface/systems (or the loop of supporting activities and development). The first internal part of the system has to support and facilitate the Commissions activities in relation to the official reporting of the countries, whereas the loop of development provides needed means and tools to facilitate any kind of supporting activities, i.e. the development of background documents, assessments or drafting official documents (strategies, protocols, agreements, etc.).

The main requirements to the information within the BSIS are to:

   correspond to the needs in information, as well as to the interest of users (e.g. the Black Sea Commission, International Programmes (e.g. BSERP, Tacis, WB ICZM), public, NGOs, private sector, etc.);

   provide operational access of the interested parties (also via the Internet) to the data and information available for the Black Sea region in different fields of activities;

   correspond to the information requirements of decision support tools, in particular GIS;

   consider the regional peculiarities of the Black Sea environment;

   correspond to the requirements of the Programmes developed within BSEP/BSERP (e.g. the Black Sea Monitoring and Assessment Programme (BSMAP), Water Quality Objectives for the Black Sea region, system of environmental indicators);

   provide a basis for further development of the water quality standards, quality objectives and key indicators in the region and harmonisation of the existing in the riparian countries legislation.


The main principles of the BSIS are regarded to be:

   BSIS must be of a regional nature and be coordinated (but not necessarily operated) at the Black Sea level (e.g. Permanent Secretariat)

   All participants to the system need to be interested in the functioning and future development of the system, which would provide its sustainability in future

   Data and information quality must fit the international QA/QC procedures

   All riparian countries must share data and information on the Black Sea within the implementation of the Black Sea Convention and corresponding Strategies, Protocols and Programmes.


Database. The central database of BSIS is a SQL-server 2000 database. The database contains 219 inter-related tables containing information on all aspects of the implementation of the Black Sea Strategic Action Plan. In order to operate the database a Database Management Application has been developed with a user-friendly interface.

Database Management Application. The software has been developed on the basis of the corresponding Informational Strategy. The development process involves the main organisational units of the Black Sea Commission and presently focuses mainly on the official reporting rather than development/research activities. There are two types of DBMAs. Central DB application works with the central BSIS database, whereas every AG-specific DBMAs work only with the tables related to the corresponding AG-related information. A super DBMA is able to work with all sections of the database. The Central DB application forms a sound basis for the implementation of data exchange and provides all needed tools for storing/retrieval the data and support of management decisions (initially - State of Environment reports, reporting on the implementation process of the Black Sea Strategic Action Plan).

Importing data into BSIS. A number of supporting applications have been developed to enter the data into the system. These are:

Software for each of the AG, which operates a MS Access database compatible with the Central BSIS database.

Reporting templates in MS Excel developed for each Advisory Group. The templates are also compatible with BSIS

A series of importing routines have been developed for user-friendly import of data received from the countries into the system.

Web-based Application. In order to access information stored in BSIS a web-application has been developed for browsing and exporting the BSIS data. The structure of the web-application is presented below. Only data to be reported to EEA are accessible.

BSIS is operational in the joint premises of the BSC/PS and BSERP PIU. The database of the system has been populated with the data for 2001-2005.


APPENDIX II: Vessel Traffic Oil Pollution System (VTOPIS) Pilot Project

The pilot project is implemented in Bulgaria. The main activities of the project included:

   Assessment of the current situation, determination of the place of VTOPIS offices and identification of goals and objectives for the VTOPIS;

   Development of software for visualisation, tracking and backtracking of the ships traffic, which could pose a high risk of pollution for the marine environment;

   Development of an integrated database with the ships pollution information, including collection and dissemination of information among the Bucharest Convention, related international organizations, national parties and the public;

   Determination of standard formats to report ships pollution issues for related authorities and data exchange formats between VTOPIS and the competent national authorities in case of oil spill incidents;

   Provision of hardware and software for building of the database, communications and oil spill modeling;

   Development of a proposal for multiplication of VTOPIS for the rest of the Black Sea countries.

General objectives:

To improve the protection of the marine environment and vulnerable coastal resources;

To enhance and strengthen the capabilities of the authorities of the Black Sea states for monitoring and control of the marine environment, including emergency situations at sea;

To contribute to the effective implementation of the Black Sea Contingency Plan to the Protocol on Co-operation in Combating Pollution of the Black Sea by Oil and other Harmful Substances in Emergency Situations, Bucharest Convention.

Specific objectives:

   Assessment of the current situation on management of VTOPIS related information in the nominated country;

   Design a Vessel Traffic Oil Pollution Information System for collection, update, exchange and management of information, including generation of required reports. The System is designed to:

   Support respective national authorities in management of the information related to VTOPIS;

   Establish an information network consisting of central, local facilities and socio-economic organisations, towards the management of VTOPIS and fulfill the obligations to the Bucharest Convention;

   Support Government in monitoring the reduction and elimination of pollution originated from ships;

   Support the Government in monitoring and evaluating environmental policy performance related to management of pollution, in order to take appropriate actions towards environmental protection in Black Sea countries and fulfill the obligation to the Bucharest Convention;

   Provide technical guidance/ format for regular reports on ships pollution issues to related ministries, sectors and facilities;

   Provide relevant information to support research and development on pollution prevention and control related to pollution from ships. (e.g. information for evaluation of new production processes and technologies, waste treatment technologies etc.);

   Provide information to support the identification and assessment of the potential risks to the human and environment by monitoring the sources and releases of pollution into the environment;

   Exchange and disseminate information among the relevant stakeholders and the public, contributing to the protection of human health and environment from the adverse impacts of pollution;

   Collect information and generate required reports to the Government and the Bucharest Convention.

   VTOPIS structure with different modules for different kind of activities, as:

   Data acquisition - input/output of different kind of information, including hydrological, meteorological, ship particulars, etc.;

   Data exchange - exchange of information with other institutions and/or VTOPIS offices in other Black Sea countries;

   Reports generation, including reports for inspections of the ships, reports for different kind of statistics for pollution and/or ships;

   Database management;

   Real time visualisation;


   Oil spill modeling.


After the completion of the project and analyzing of the results the following conclusions can be made:

VTOPIS provides all necessary tools for the daily activities of MEPC department including management of the inspections, permissions and pollution reports;

The information management integrated in VTOPIS database provides fast and accurate generation of all needed reports. Implementation of data export in MS Excel format provides additional possibilities for generation of unlimited number of more exotic reports and data analysis;

Close integration between VTMIS and VTOPIS is essential for the efficiency of the system. Real time visualization and backtracking are compulsory for effective monitoring of the vessel traffic and oil spill investigations;

Implementation of VTOPIS does not require expensive and specialized hardware equipment;

Implementation of professional and well supported oil spill modeling system requires more funds than provided in the pilot project. However the GNOME system can be used until such financing is available;

For successful implementation of VTOPIS in the rest of the Black Sea countries more research of the legal basis in these countries is needed;

AIS data sharing between Black Sea countries will improve the readiness in case of oil spills and will provide valuable data for oil spill investigations;

The pilot project VTOPIS gives the necessary data in case of operational or accidental oil spills and other emergencies. The implementation of this system in Bulgaria and possibility for multiplication in other Black Sea countries greatly improves the ecological control of shipping in the Black Sea region.



[1] Not reliable difference between values of N-NH4 and N-NO3

[2] For Max Ptot there is no value corresponding to 0.70


[3] Constanta, May , 5 m depth


[4] Sulina, May, 5m depth

[5] Needed to transfer into mol/l

[6] All marked columns need specific interpretation