The Europaen Commission The Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution
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Report Contents

Acknowledgements 1. Introduction 2 Challenges 3 The Basis for Cooperative Action 4 Policy Actions Conclusions
Annex I. Basis for Cooperative Measures Annex II. Policy Actions Annex III. LBS Report 2007: Land Based Pressures on the Black Sea Annex VI. Nationally Reported Date Annex V. Black Sea Monitoring And Assessment Program
List of Tables List of Figures

Implementation of the Strategic Action Plan for the Rehabilitation and Protection of the Black Sea

2002 - 2007

Implementation of the Strategic Action Plan for the Rehabilitation and Protection of the Black Sea

ANNEX V. Black Sea Integrated Monitoring and Assessment Program: Reported concentrations in water, sediments and biota in 2001-2005

BSIMAP data on Nutrients in Water

Water O2 O2 TSS Secchi disk BOD5 P-PO4   TP N -NH4 N - NO3   TN
Bulgaria % mg/L O2 mg/L m mg/L O2 mol/l P   mol/l N mol/l N  
2005                    
Average 84.8 8.4 6.5   1.9 0.623 0.91 5.09 32.34 58.21
Max 121.0 13.5 47.0   4.0 3.05 3.07 31.21 50.71 120.71
Min 46.2 4.2 0.0   0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.57 23.21
No of samples 26 28 22   21 28 12 28 18 15
2004                    
Average 87.39 8.13 19.23   1.97     5.36 6.56  
Max 180.00 17.40 350.00   4.60     15.85 12.90  
Min 54.90 4.46 1.00   0.00     0.00 0.00  
2003                    
Average 82.00 8.03 10.80   1.67 0.04   0.179 19.43  
Max 116.00 15.40 40.00   2.90 0.21   3.57 49.29  
Min 46.50 4.51 1.00   0.90 0.00   0.00 0.00  
No of samples 40 40 40   38 40   38 24  
2002                    
Average 76.86 7.19 15.23 1.75 1.87 0.06   11.01 1.59  
Max 132.00 14.20 28.00 5.5 4.88 0.86   39.93 37.86  
Min 52.00 4.47 6.00 0.8 0.97 0.00   0.00 0.07  
No of samples 38 38 38 38 38 38   24 38  
2001                    
Average 97.48 9.17 18.00   1.75 0.11   7.11 39.21  
Max 175.00 16.10 57.00   5.50 1.11   36.99 92.86  
Min 38.10 4.16 2.00   0.80 0.00   0.00 0.00  
No of samples 38 38 38   36 38   38 28  

 

Water O2 BOD5 P (PO4) P total N (NH4) N (NO3) N (NO2) N, Total SiO4
Georgia mol/l mol/l mol/l mol/l mol/l mol/l mol/l mol/l mol/l
2005                  
Average 190.94 49.596 0.26   6.24 2.88   ?  
Max 259.4 65.6 0.38   10.2 5.61   ?  
Min 154.7 34.38 0.18   1.12 1.38   ?  
No of samples 8 8 8   8 8   8  
2001                  
Average 169.6 121.28 0.52 0.65 0.26[1] 7.17 0.10   13.84
Max 204.8 147.2 0.70[2]   0.40 8.30 0.45   15.6
Min 150.4 102.4 0.18 0.54 0.20 6.20 0.02   11.4
No of samples 20 19 14 19 19 19 19 4 22

 

Water O2 BOD5 P (PO4)  TP N (NH4) N (NO3) NO3-N+NO2-N  TN SiO4
Romania mol/l O2 mol/l O2 mol/l P  mol/l P mol/l N mol/l N mol/l N  mol/l N mol/l Si
2005                  
Average 301.14 133.23 0.38 1.43 7.30 6.62   47.84 8.74
Max 405.5 304.6 7.23 4.32 46.05 32.68   155.3 90.7
Min 225.5 9.38 0.04 0.53 0.35 1.68   16.1 0.6
No of samples 47 49 49 12 49 49   12 49
2004                  
Average 333.23 139.06 0.566   4.853 8.323     9.973
Max 546.6 392.1 15.240   47.500 71.570     79.200
Min 225.1 45.1 0.010   0.550 1.080     1.700
No of samples 116 116 116   116 116     116
2003                  
Average 347.33 150.35 0.69   6.51 7.95 8.57   8.61
Max 649.40 527.90 13.36   104.60[3] 58.85[4] 61.19   44.10
Min 257.20 54.90 0.02   0.98 0.83 1.18   0.40
No of samples 94 90 88   99 99 99   99
2002                  
Average 325.5 145.3 0.57   8.7 8.48 9.52   10.01
Max 543.1 408.6 5.98   101.8 51.79 53.53   114.8
Min 198.3 32.2 0.01   0.32 2.21 2.48   0.1
No of sample 84 84 86   83 83     83
2001                  
Average 385.54 175.24 0.23   8.53 1.70     4.04
Max 426.24 357.12 3.40   19.06 11.70     28.25
Min 180.16 20.16 0.00   0.90 0.38     0.05
No of samples 78 62 74   74 74     71

 

Water O2 BOD5 P (PO4) TP N (NH4) N (NO3) N (NO2) TN SiO4
Russian Federation ml/L mg/L O2 mkg/L[5] mkg/L mkg/L mkg/l mkg/L mkg/L mkg/l
2005                  
Average 6.42 0.832 7.104 14.705 12.395  42.577 2.687 274.81  494.38 
Max 8.10 2.698 27.884 92.122 40.619  248.995 6.334 715.97  1826.142 
Min 3.097 0.172 0.041 3.513 3.903  2.063 0.410 90.70  61.87 
No of samples 213 115 177 133 154  147 176 131  177
May-August 2003                  
Average 8.2   8.34   13.7 0.7 1.5   395.88
Max 9.3   8.46   29.4 1.5 3.6   560.00
Min 7.6   8.27   0.0 0.0 0.2   230.00
No of samples 8   20   8 6 8   20
2002                  
Average 6.04   12.15   43.37 80.07 0.55   1999.20
Max 8.08   40.60   134.50 457.00 3.10   5644.00
Min 4.94   0.00   7.70 0.00 0.00   118.00
No of samples 6.00   6.00   6.00 6.00 6.00   6.00

 

Water O2 Secci H2S P (PO4) P total N (NH4) N (NO3) N, Total SiO4
Turkey mg/l O2 m mg/L mol/l P mol/l P mol/l N mol/l N mol/l N mol/l Si
2005                  
Average 8.86 6.59   0.199 0.386 1.636 0.367 8.315 10.813
Max 14.67 13.7   3.85 5.78 10.793 3.777 85.081 190.927
Min 1.67 0.6   0.007 0.029 0.377 0.0095 0.988 0.004
No of Samples 836 128   835 836 836 835 836 836
 2004                  
Average 8.47 12.17 0.31 0.32[6] 0.31 1.84 0.35 3.76 13.06
Max 11.63 15.88 0.50 4.69 1.74 7.62 7.26 12.07 52.71
Min 0.54 7.93 0.18 0.14 0.14 0.06 0.01 2.42 0.62
No of Samples 413 415 4 414 412 415 414 412 415

 

Water Chlorophyll      
Turkey        
2004 mg/L      
Average 0.76      
Max 5.186      
Min 0.1      
No of samples 389      

 

Water O2 Secci BOD5 P (PO4) P total N (NH4) N (NO2) N (NO3) N total SiO4
Ukraine mg/L m mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L
2005                    
Average 8.66   2.25   0.04 0.17 0.02 0.29 0.17 0.45
Max 11.30   4.40   0.06 2.23 0.43 2.00 0.52 1.04
Min 3.12   1.80   0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.04 0.01
No of samples 113   78   13 78 88 86 12 15
2004                    
Average 9.05 2.48 2.28     0.11 0.01 0.22 0.38  
Max 11.30 1.70 14.00     2.05 0.22 2.20 3.45  
Min 4.80 14.00 1.00     0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  
No of samples 88 74 88     68 86 69 57  
2003                    
Average 7.29   2.20 0.028 0.06 0.12 0.01 0.20 0.56 0.45
Max 10.80   6.20 0.122 0.15 1.59 0.17 2.40 1.70 0.89
Min 3.24   1.50 0 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.11 0.15
No of samples 21   98 19 17 112 116 116 17 18
2002                    
Average 9.79   2.36   0.02 0.05 0.01 0.09 0.18 0.39
Max 11.07   4.60   0.03 0.22 0.06 0.37 0.18 0.43
Min 8.53   1.36   0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.18 0.35
No of samples 15   13   5 15 16 15 4 5
2001                    
Average 9.00   2.40 0.016 0.04 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.37 0.29
Max 10.19   2.90 0.029 0.07 0.25 0.03 0.04 0.58 0.47
Min 7.50   1.80 0.004 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.17 0.12
No of samples 13   10 8 5 13 13 13 5 5

 

BSIMAP Data on Heavy Metals and Organic Micropollutants in Water

Water Cd Cu Hg Pb
Bulgaria g/l g/l g/l g/l
2004        
Average 0.13 2.07   1.07
Min 0.00 0.00   0.00
Max 2.00 6.00   8.00
No of samples 35      

 

Water Cd Cu Hg Pb
Georgia g/L g/L ng/L g/L
2001        
Average 41.00 4.66   0.24
Max 41.00 78.00   0.28
Min 41.00 0.07   0.21
No of samples 5.00 19.00   19.00

 

Water Cd Mn Cu Pb
Romania g/l g/l g/l g/l
2003        
Average 1.52 5.98 3.79 8.17
Max 2.86 14.54 10.73 32.85
Min 0.73 0.99 0.16 0.51
No of samples 18 11 18 18
2001        
Average 1.80 12.01 10.56 9.25
Max 10.97 22.29 40.80 49.95
Min 0.06 2.27 0.04 0.59
No of samples 50 30 50 39
Water DDT Lindane Petroleum Hydrocarbons PAHs
Romania g/l g/l g/l ng/l
2003        
Average 32.32 223.6 194.1702 36.87
Max 32.32 359.88 1096 103.07
Min 32.32 130.27 9.5 1.85
No of samples 1 3 51 3
2001        
Average 18.64 89.38 149.35 253.85
Max 783.00 2083.00 2268.40 993.00
Min 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.32
No of samples 42 42 96 38

 

Water DDT DDD DDE Lindane Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Russian Federation n/L n/L n/L n/L mg/L
2002          
Average 0 0 0 0 0.03
Max 0 0 0 0 0.09
Min 0 0 0 0 0
No of samples 0 0 0 0 6

 

Water Cd Cu Hg Pb Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Turkey g/l g/l g/l g/l g/L
2004          
Average 0.51 1.61 1.74 0.14 11.24
Max 0.86 3.28 7.74 1.10 77.17
Min 0.26 0.72 0.00 0.00 0.99
No of Samples 50 50 50 50 66

 

Water Cd Cu Hg Pb Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Ukraine g/L g/L g/L g/L g/L
2004          
Average         50
Min         50
Max         180
No         86
2003          
Average         50
Min         50
Max         60
No         96
2002          
Average         50
Min         50
Max         90
No         94
2001          
Average         50
Min         50
Max         50
No         9

 

BSIMAP: Heavy Metals in Bottom Sediments

 

Bottom Sediments Cd Cu Hg Pb
Romania mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg
2004        
Average 5.52 57.86   50.95
Max 30.19 182.96   149.45
Min 0.65 8.61   3.49
No of samples 42 43   43

 

Bottom Sediments Cd Cu Hg Pb
Turkey mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg
2004        
Average   69.08 68.50 27.04
Max   269.00 286.00 62.00
Min   19.00 4.00 11.00
No of Samples   50 39 49

 

 

 

Trace metals in Biota

Biota, mussels Pb Cd Hg
Romania g / g g / g g / g
2003      
Average 0.41 0.092  
Max 0.58 0.150  
Min 0.31 0.017  
No of samples 3 3  

 

APPENDIX I: Information on SQL-server on-line BSIS developed within the BSERP

The Black Sea Information System (BSIS) was a part of the Information Strategy developed within the project. BSIS was the first key element of the implementation of the Information Strategy of the Black Sea Commission. The system provides tools for reporting and communication at the international level, regional, and national level.

The implemented approach distinguishes between two sections/parts of the information system developed. These are: an internal area/system (or the loop of official reporting) and external interface/systems (or the loop of supporting activities and development). The first internal part of the system has to support and facilitate the Commissions activities in relation to the official reporting of the countries, whereas the loop of development provides needed means and tools to facilitate any kind of supporting activities, i.e. the development of background documents, assessments or drafting official documents (strategies, protocols, agreements, etc.).

The main requirements to the information within the BSIS are to:

   correspond to the needs in information, as well as to the interest of users (e.g. the Black Sea Commission, International Programmes (e.g. BSERP, Tacis, WB ICZM), public, NGOs, private sector, etc.);

   provide operational access of the interested parties (also via the Internet) to the data and information available for the Black Sea region in different fields of activities;

   correspond to the information requirements of decision support tools, in particular GIS;

   consider the regional peculiarities of the Black Sea environment;

   correspond to the requirements of the Programmes developed within BSEP/BSERP (e.g. the Black Sea Monitoring and Assessment Programme (BSMAP), Water Quality Objectives for the Black Sea region, system of environmental indicators);

   provide a basis for further development of the water quality standards, quality objectives and key indicators in the region and harmonisation of the existing in the riparian countries legislation.

 

The main principles of the BSIS are regarded to be:

   BSIS must be of a regional nature and be coordinated (but not necessarily operated) at the Black Sea level (e.g. Permanent Secretariat)

   All participants to the system need to be interested in the functioning and future development of the system, which would provide its sustainability in future

   Data and information quality must fit the international QA/QC procedures

   All riparian countries must share data and information on the Black Sea within the implementation of the Black Sea Convention and corresponding Strategies, Protocols and Programmes.

    

Database. The central database of BSIS is a SQL-server 2000 database. The database contains 219 inter-related tables containing information on all aspects of the implementation of the Black Sea Strategic Action Plan. In order to operate the database a Database Management Application has been developed with a user-friendly interface.

Database Management Application. The software has been developed on the basis of the corresponding Informational Strategy. The development process involves the main organisational units of the Black Sea Commission and presently focuses mainly on the official reporting rather than development/research activities. There are two types of DBMAs. Central DB application works with the central BSIS database, whereas every AG-specific DBMAs work only with the tables related to the corresponding AG-related information. A super DBMA is able to work with all sections of the database. The Central DB application forms a sound basis for the implementation of data exchange and provides all needed tools for storing/retrieval the data and support of management decisions (initially - State of Environment reports, reporting on the implementation process of the Black Sea Strategic Action Plan).

Importing data into BSIS. A number of supporting applications have been developed to enter the data into the system. These are:

Software for each of the AG, which operates a MS Access database compatible with the Central BSIS database.

Reporting templates in MS Excel developed for each Advisory Group. The templates are also compatible with BSIS

A series of importing routines have been developed for user-friendly import of data received from the countries into the system.

Web-based Application. In order to access information stored in BSIS a web-application has been developed for browsing and exporting the BSIS data. The structure of the web-application is presented below. Only data to be reported to EEA are accessible.

BSIS is operational in the joint premises of the BSC/PS and BSERP PIU. The database of the system has been populated with the data for 2001-2005.

 

APPENDIX II: Vessel Traffic Oil Pollution System (VTOPIS) Pilot Project

The pilot project is implemented in Bulgaria. The main activities of the project included:

   Assessment of the current situation, determination of the place of VTOPIS offices and identification of goals and objectives for the VTOPIS;

   Development of software for visualisation, tracking and backtracking of the ships traffic, which could pose a high risk of pollution for the marine environment;

   Development of an integrated database with the ships pollution information, including collection and dissemination of information among the Bucharest Convention, related international organizations, national parties and the public;

   Determination of standard formats to report ships pollution issues for related authorities and data exchange formats between VTOPIS and the competent national authorities in case of oil spill incidents;

   Provision of hardware and software for building of the database, communications and oil spill modeling;

   Development of a proposal for multiplication of VTOPIS for the rest of the Black Sea countries.

General objectives:

To improve the protection of the marine environment and vulnerable coastal resources;

To enhance and strengthen the capabilities of the authorities of the Black Sea states for monitoring and control of the marine environment, including emergency situations at sea;

To contribute to the effective implementation of the Black Sea Contingency Plan to the Protocol on Co-operation in Combating Pollution of the Black Sea by Oil and other Harmful Substances in Emergency Situations, Bucharest Convention.

Specific objectives:

   Assessment of the current situation on management of VTOPIS related information in the nominated country;

   Design a Vessel Traffic Oil Pollution Information System for collection, update, exchange and management of information, including generation of required reports. The System is designed to:

   Support respective national authorities in management of the information related to VTOPIS;

   Establish an information network consisting of central, local facilities and socio-economic organisations, towards the management of VTOPIS and fulfill the obligations to the Bucharest Convention;

   Support Government in monitoring the reduction and elimination of pollution originated from ships;

   Support the Government in monitoring and evaluating environmental policy performance related to management of pollution, in order to take appropriate actions towards environmental protection in Black Sea countries and fulfill the obligation to the Bucharest Convention;

   Provide technical guidance/ format for regular reports on ships pollution issues to related ministries, sectors and facilities;

   Provide relevant information to support research and development on pollution prevention and control related to pollution from ships. (e.g. information for evaluation of new production processes and technologies, waste treatment technologies etc.);

   Provide information to support the identification and assessment of the potential risks to the human and environment by monitoring the sources and releases of pollution into the environment;

   Exchange and disseminate information among the relevant stakeholders and the public, contributing to the protection of human health and environment from the adverse impacts of pollution;

   Collect information and generate required reports to the Government and the Bucharest Convention.

   VTOPIS structure with different modules for different kind of activities, as:

   Data acquisition - input/output of different kind of information, including hydrological, meteorological, ship particulars, etc.;

   Data exchange - exchange of information with other institutions and/or VTOPIS offices in other Black Sea countries;

   Reports generation, including reports for inspections of the ships, reports for different kind of statistics for pollution and/or ships;

   Database management;

   Real time visualisation;

   Backtracking;

   Oil spill modeling.

 

After the completion of the project and analyzing of the results the following conclusions can be made:

VTOPIS provides all necessary tools for the daily activities of MEPC department including management of the inspections, permissions and pollution reports;

The information management integrated in VTOPIS database provides fast and accurate generation of all needed reports. Implementation of data export in MS Excel format provides additional possibilities for generation of unlimited number of more exotic reports and data analysis;

Close integration between VTMIS and VTOPIS is essential for the efficiency of the system. Real time visualization and backtracking are compulsory for effective monitoring of the vessel traffic and oil spill investigations;

Implementation of VTOPIS does not require expensive and specialized hardware equipment;

Implementation of professional and well supported oil spill modeling system requires more funds than provided in the pilot project. However the GNOME system can be used until such financing is available;

For successful implementation of VTOPIS in the rest of the Black Sea countries more research of the legal basis in these countries is needed;

AIS data sharing between Black Sea countries will improve the readiness in case of oil spills and will provide valuable data for oil spill investigations;

The pilot project VTOPIS gives the necessary data in case of operational or accidental oil spills and other emergencies. The implementation of this system in Bulgaria and possibility for multiplication in other Black Sea countries greatly improves the ecological control of shipping in the Black Sea region.

 

 



[1] Not reliable difference between values of N-NH4 and N-NO3

[2] For Max Ptot there is no value corresponding to 0.70

 

[3] Constanta, May , 5 m depth

 

[4] Sulina, May, 5m depth

[5] Needed to transfer into mol/l

[6] All marked columns need specific interpretation