COMMISSION ON THE PROTECTION OF THE BLACK SEA AGAINST POLLUTION
The Black Sea Integrated Monitoring and Assessment Program (BSIMAP)
as approved by the BSC|, 13 June 2002
1. Strategy for Black integrated Monitoring and Assessment and Program
1.2 Assessment plan
1.3 Scientific programme.
1.4 Scope and Content of a National Assessment and the Convention-wide Assessment.
1.5 Quality assurance
1.6 Description of the Regions of the Black SEA
2. Issues to be taken into account in the development and implementation of the Black Sea Integrated Monitoring and Assessment Program
1. Strategy for the Integrated Monitoring and Assessment Programme
The main goal of the Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution (1992) reflects the concerns of the people with the state of the environment of the Black Sea and express their resolution to combat pollution and rehabilitate the Black Sea ecosystem. The strong regional cooperation is crucial for a success, therefore:
The Contracting Parties shall take individually or jointly, as appropriate, all necessary measures consistent with international law and in accordance with the provisions of this Convention to prevent, reduce and control pollution thereof in order to protect and preserve the marine environment of the Black Sea. (Article V, the Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution (1992)
The Black Sea Srategic Action Plan (1996) further reinforced the commitments of the littoral states to the above goal and assigned a task of creating a integrated monitoring and assessment system the Advisory Group on Pollution Monitoring and Assessment (AG PMA), a subsidiary body of the Commission for the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution (hereinafter the BS Commission) in order to make management and polities decisions based on scientifically valid, comprehensive information on trends, state, and required remedial measures.
On June 11-23, 2001, the AG PMA carefully studied the Joint Monitoring and Assessment Program (ASMO, 1997) of the sister OSPAR Convention and concluded that this document with necessary amendments could be adapted, at least for some years, for the purposes of the Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution. The AG PMA appreciated the quality on the above document and made changes only relevant to the Black Sea. The document shall be revised as soon as the system of indicators and reporting requirements is finalised and approved by EU Commission taking into account the recommendations of the Regional Seas Forum, EU Water Framework requirements, and outcomes of the BSEP.
Assessments of the quality of the marine environment and related monitoring are important aspects of the Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution (hereinafter the Black Sea Convention). This paper describes a strategy to fulfil the monitoring and assessment requirements of the Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution.
The Article XV describes the scientific and technical cooperation and monitoring in the Black Sea Convention:
The Contracting Parties shall co-operate in conducting studies aimed at developing ways and means for assessment of the nature and extent of pollution and of its effect on the ecological system in the water column and sediments, detecting polluted areas, examining and assessing risks and finding remedies, and in particular, they shall develop alternative methods of treatment, disposal, elimination or utilisation of harmful substances.
The Contracting Parties shall co-operate through the Commission in establishing appropriate scientific criteria for the formulation and elaboration of rules, standards, and recommended practices and procedures for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution of the marine environment of the Black Sea.
At the 1993 Odessa Ministerial Meeting of the Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution, the Ministers agreed to establish a programme for a quality assessment of Black Sea further incorporated in the Black Sea Strategic Action Plan
This goal also takes into account the results of the UN Conference on the Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro (June, 1992) and in particular with the reference to the sustainable development of the oceans, seas, and coastal environment in the Agenda 21.
Assessment of the Quality of the Marine Environment requires that the Contracting Parties shall:
- Undertake and publish every five years joint assessments of the quality status of the marine environment and of its development for the maritime area and for the region thereof; and
- include in such assessments both evaluation of the effectiveness of the measures taken and planned for the protection of the marine environment and the identification of the priorities for actions
1.2 Assessment plan
The definition of assessment of the quality of the marine environment is adopted by AG PMA thereof as:
“... a statement of the whole or part of the current knowledge of the health of the environment of a defined maritime area and its coastal margin. A complete statement includes an analysis of the region’s hydrodynamics, chemistry, habitats and biota with an evaluation of man’s impact over space and time against this background of natural variability. All aspects of man’s influence on the area should be examined including inputs, concentrations and effects of contaminants, nutrients and radioactivity, dumping, transport, and the exploitation of biological and non-biological resources.”
The purpose of an assessment is to provide both managers and scientists with:
- a concise summary of contemporary knowledge and current management;
- an identification of significant gaps in knowledge which can provide an authoritative basis for defining priorities for further scientific and other investigations; and
- a basis for judging the effectiveness and adequacy of environmental protection measures and for making any necessary adjustments.
- In view of the objectives of the Black Sea Convention, its focus should be on the assessment of:
- occurrence of contamination in space and time;
- occurrence of other adverse effects of human activities
- human health safety
- conservation of marine ecosystems
- the effectiveness of the measures taken or planned for the protection off the marine environment; and
- the effects of global climate changes on the Black Sea ecosystems, and
- priorities for action.
In summary, a marine environmental assessment, is a process by which information is collected and evaluated and which is undertaken periodically to estimate the state of knowledge and to propose measures for improvement of the quality of environment and protection of ecosystems from human activitiues. Its product is an assessment report that is a document synthesising information, presenting the findings of the assessment and making recommendations for actions for future work.
Section 1.4 provides further information on the scope and content of an assessment.
In 2001 the AG PMA agreed to divide the Black Sea into seven zones of responsibilities
- Bulgaria (territorial waters)
- Georgia (territorial waters)
- Romania (territorial waters)
- Russian Federation (territorial waters)
- Turkey (territorial waters)
- Ukraine (territorial waters)
- Open Sea
An assessment will be undertaken by each of the Contracting Party every five years within its territorial waters. The external assistance or joint projects will be sought to implement assessment for the Open Sea region. All reports will be combined to produce an five years assessment for the whole Black Sea. For each Contracting Party, the process will involve an assessment of existing information, the identification of gaps in knowledge and identification of information needs. Throughout this process, the public will be kept informed and will have access to the final assessment report.
1.3 Scientific programme
The assessment of the quality of the marine environment may require monitoring, research and the development of assessment tools (modelling, criteria etc.). Before any programme is designed the issues that are to be addressed must be clearly identified. In this respect a programme should be designed on the basis of specific questions, information needs and testable hypotheses.
Based on the nature of the question or hypothesis and on the information already available, it can be determined which monitoring, research and assessment criteria or combination thereof are required.
The Advisory Group on Pollution Monitoring and Assessment of the Black Sea Commisision Convention adopts the definition** of monitoring as the repeated measurements of:
- the quality of the marine environment and each of its compartments, i.e. water, sediments and biota;
- natural and anthropogenic impacts which may affect the quality of the marine environment
- response of the marine environment to naturally occured or anthropohgenicaally induced changes
For the purpose of the assessment of the quality of the marine environment, monitoring for spatial patterns and temporal trends is carried out to determine and describe aspects. In particular, it is to be determined whether policy decisions are being reflected in improvements in environmental conditions; they will identify adverse impacts upon the maritime area and therefore indicate the need and scope for remedial measures. To be able to contribute effectively to the assessment process, monitoring can be expressed as follows:
- to describe the spatial distribution of a range of physical, chemical, biological and other parameters (including demography, inputs, specific activities);
- to determine temporal trends, either as a means of assessing the effectiveness of policy measures, or to assess, by the use of suitable indicators, changes and variability in the quality of the marine environment; and
- to establish relations between anthropogenic impacts and observed spatial and temporal trends in the marine environment.
On the basis of the questions and hypotheses identified the monitoring programme will be clearly defined in all its aspects, in which choice of matrix and sampling locations are of major importance. Of course, effects on living organisms are a prime aspect of the quality of the marine environment. This stresses the need for inclusion of biological monitoring (abundance and diversity studies, responses in animals within natural ecosystems and bioassays). In the definition of the programme the required covariables or normalisation parameters to reduce confounding variability also need specification.
It is necessary to know, from the outset of the programme, how the monitoring results will be assessed. This means that assessment criteria and procedures (statistics, who, when, form of product, result) need to be defined beforehand since these are fundamental to the design of the programme.
However well the programme is defined, if the quality of the information gathered is insufficient, the total exercise is useless. Therefore, when planning monitoring, careful attention must be paid to ensuring proper quality assurance and quality control. In this context, the Black Sea Convention (1992) requires the development a quality assurance policy and system. It is expected that AG PMA shall develop a quality assurance guidelines and propose a tabletime for its implementation.
Quality assurance must be an integral part of the monitoring programme. This relates not only to the quality assurance of chemical and biological analyses and tests, with intercomparisons where necessary, but also to the sampling and assessment procedures, which should have a sound statistical basis. Results of quality assurance procedures must be reported. Sampling, analyses, the submission and validation of data must comply with agreed guidelines and tabletimes, otherwise results will not be included in the assessment.
Beside of a vast amount of scientifivc knowledge for the Black Sea, many issues cannot be assessed by variables included in existing national monitoring programs. For their explanations it would be required the development of methodologies, cause-effect relationships, or an understanding of the basic physical, chemical and biological processes which contribute to the variability in monitoring data. Such topics may be investigated on the basis of specifically designed research projects.
To be able to incorporate research results effectively into the assessment process, research activities should cover at least the following main items (in addition to monitoring activities and assessment tools):
- basic processes (biology, physics and chemistry) of the marine environment at different scales;
- long-term changes and their causes; and
- cause-effect relationships.
Based on the various issues of the Contracting Parties common research program has to be designed with clearly identified objectives and testable hypotheses. It will be necessary to develop common methodologies and ways to use results in the assessment process, in combination with monitoring and modelling activities/results. In this aspect the AG PMA shall be responsible for preparing the necessary technical guidelines on these topics.
Effective tools are indispensable for use of monitoring and research results with regard to the quality of the marine environment. Assessment criteria are one of such tools These criteria can be based on several approaches such as comparisons with background values or ecotoxicological assessment criteria. An understanding of the ecotoxicology of compounds is essential for establishing ecotoxicological assessment criteria. Assessment criteria for biological data, such as results from biological effects measurements or abundance and diversity data, can be based on a comparison of such results with, for example, Ecological Quality Objectives (EcoQOs). Other tools which are important are mathematical models and statistical techniques. Models are used to synthesise information from monitoring data, to make forecasts as a basis for counter measures and to make informative presentations of environmental data. From the environmental management point of view, models should be developed with the following aims:
- to provide an integrated picture of the environmental status of the different parts of the maritime area, combining information on e.g. concentrations, inputs, transport and biological processes and variability;
- to provide a tool for planning and decisions;
- to provide a basis for an improved description of causal connections; and
- to provide a basis for the optimisation of monitoring systems.
The use of numerical models in conjunction with measured data constitutes a powerful tool which generates interpolated data in time and space. However, it should be realised that in applying numerical models to simulate currents and mixing conditions in the sea, it is important to use a model that reflects the major physical forcing functions of the system and which is properly verified and validated. In order to validate a model, there is a need for long-term series of data on physical and chemical variables. Therefore the cooperation will be sought with GOOS, NATO and other acitivites in order to use the highest level of the scientific expertise for development of forecasting and modelling systems.
1.4 Scope and Content of a Black Sea Assessment Report
The following text shows what should be included in a national assessment and the Black Sea Convention-wide assessment.
The goal and function of the assessment should be set out within the context of the work and the objectives of the Black Sea Commission.
- Geography and scope
The geographical boundaries and scope (i.e. the environmental features and anthropogenic activities to be covered) of the assessment must be clearly defined at the beginning of the report. The definition of boundaries should be coastal zone of the Black Sea, including its extension into rivers and catchment areas, as well as marine boundaries.
The environmental features to be addressed should encompass the major components of the sea (i.e. seawater, sediments and biota) but might also include the overlying atmosphere and geological features beneath the surficial sediments and around the coasts.
- Human activities
The first part of this section should summarise demographic data and trends in anthropogenic activities throughout the region. These could include the extent of urban and rural communities at the coast or dependent on the coast.
Ideally, all anthropogenic activities within the coastal zone as well as its catchment, that have the potential to damage or modify the marine environment, should be identified. However, special attention should be given to practices that, due to their nature and scale, pose the greatest potential threats. It is therefore desirable to document activities such as port development, waste dumping and navigational dredging, industrial and domestic waste disposal, coastal construction (e.g. reclamation, causeways), tourism and recreational developments, shipping, forestry, fishing, aquaculture, agriculture (particularly agrochemical use), mineral exploration and exploitation and power generation.
- Hydrography, hydrochemistry and climate
The first part of this section should summarise the water exchange and circulation and their temporal variability (e.g. seasonal) at both local and regional levels. Hydrographic and climatic (e.g. wind action, storm events, salinity, suspended solids, etc.) information should be used to estimate water movement across the geographical boundaries of the area (i.e. river discharges, transport to offshore areas and exchanges across marine boundaries) and to assess potential contaminant dispersion. For completeness, a quantitative description of the precipitation-evaporation balance might also be included.
The second part of this section should contain an assessment of the movement and fate of particulate material within the system through mechanisms such as water circulation, river discharge, coastal erosion, sedimentation and sediment resuspension.
The third part of this section should contain a summary of specific anthropogenic activities that directly or indirectly have the potential for modifying the movement of water and particulate materials such as the construction of barrages, coastal engineering, dredging, urban development and deforestation. The potential for effects associated with climate change should also be considered.
The main structure of this section should reflect the major categories within the BSIMAP matrix (cf.Section II):
- inorganic contaminants;
- organic contaminants;
- nutrients and oxygen
For each category the following topics should be covered:
This subsection should provide information on the inputs to the marine environment from both natural and anthropogenic sources, including atmospheric inputs. This should include information on the quantities and forms (i.e. dissolved/suspended) of individual substances as well as on trends and variability of inputs.
This subsection should contain data on the spatial distribution and temporal trends in concentration of substances in appropriate matrices, e.g. dissolved and particulate forms of the substances in the water column, in relevant grain-size fractions of sediments, in appropriate tissues of edible marine organisms and in various trophic levels of the marine foodweb. Attention should be paid to the anthropogenic influence on the observed concentrations.
This subsection should outline information on the transport, cycling and fate of the substances, and on the influence of anthropogenic activities upon these processes. This should be discussed within the context of the physical oceanographic features described in the preceding section of the document. This information should then be used to summarise contemporary understanding of the biogeochemical processes that determine the fate and pathways of natural / artificial substances introduced to the area.
assessment of human impact
The final subsection should relate the specific inputs of substances, and/or the influence of particular anthropogenic activities (e.g. dredging), to the effects observed on the marine environment and on dependent life forms (e.g. the effects of oil on seabirds, effects of suspended solids on Phylphora weed). Changes in the chemical characteristics should also be assessed in relation to (eco)toxicological information (assessment criteria, results from bioassays, human health standards) and background values.
The first part of this section should provide an inventory of the biology of the area describing the major subsystems of the ecosystem (e.g. habitats and associated communities / key species).
In the second part of this section a description, focused on anthropogenic impacts, should be given for each major subsystem taking into account:
Spatial extent, sensitivity, variation and modification of particular habitats should be described as well as the degree and causes of observed natural or anthropogenic-influenced perturbations. These may have occurred in response to a particular activity (such as fishing techniques or coastal and inshore development) and may be manifested as the destruction of habitats (reefs or intertidal flats) or may be an indirect consequence of alterations to natural processes such as water exchange and sedimentation.
- key species
This should review the ecology and the spatial and temporal variation in the populations of key species, including exploited marine species (fish, shellfish, seaweed etc.) and the displacement (or similar unusual events) of such key species from particular habitats. This information could be gathered from research as well as anecdotal evidence. In addition, information on the spatial and temporal variation of indicators of the health of organisms should be provided, such as biochemical parameters or the incidence of fish disease. Human health implications or other impacts resulting from the occurrence of particular species (e.g. phytoplankton, bacteria, viruses) or toxins should be evaluated. An attempt should be made to distinguish between natural perturbations and those that might result from anthropogenic activities. Deviations from defined criteria, e.g. EcoQOs, should be assessed.
- processes and relationships
The ecology and sensitivity of communities should be described, e.g. in terms of diversity, predator/prey relationships, productivity and interdependencies between physical, chemical and biological characteristics. Spatial variation and temporal change of processes and relationships should be described and anthropogenic influences identified.
- Overall assessment
This chapter should identify the major problems and establish the priorities for action. Conclusions and recommendations for action arising from this assessment should be presented clearly and concisely.
The overall assessment should consist of a discussion and an analysis of the findings within the context of environmental management concerns and any agreed environmental goals and quality criteria. It should also address any new or impending problems revealed by the assessment including those that might arise from future development within the area concerned, such as the introduction of new industry and increased use of coastal resources. It should identify deficiencies in the scientific and socio-economic information necessary to resolve these problems and concerns, and to improve the predictive capability and assessment of risks. The effectiveness of any previous management action taken to protect the marine environment should be evaluated. The need for new management action to address risks to human health and adverse effects on ecosystems and to restore marine areas which have been adversely affected should be specified.
1.5 Quality assurance
The following policies in quality assurance and quality control shall be proposed for adoption the the BS Commission:
- Contracting Parties acknowledge that only reliable information can provide the basis for effective and economic environmental policy and management regarding the Convention area;
- Contracting Parties acknowledge that environmental information is the product of a chain of activities, constituting programme design, execution, evaluation and reporting, and that each activity has to meet certain quality assurance requirements;
- Contracting Parties agree that quality assurance requirements be set for each of these activities;
- Contracting Parties agree to make sure that suitable resources are available nationally (e.g. ships, laboratories, financial resources, etc.) in order to achieve these goals;
The guidelines and the procedure of quality assurance
and quality control with clear definition of tabletime for their implementation
shall to be jointly developed by AG PMA, AG CBD, AG LBS and other groups,
adopted by the Black Sea Commisision and incorporated in policy documents of
regional importance within the framework of the Commissions
Issues to be taking into account in the development of the Black Sea Integrqated Monitoring aand Assessment Program
Taking into account existing capacities and ability to carry out the activities in order to implememt Black Sea Integrated Monitoring and Assessment Program (BSIMAP by the individual Black Sea countries affected by the economic conditions, the following recomendationswere made by the Advosory Group on Pollution Monitoring and Assessment::
- To set-up Black Sea Integrated Monitoring Program BSIMAP) program based on the existing national monitoring programs of the Black Sea countries within the territorial waters of each contry according to the observation sites presented by the national focal points which are affordable in the cureent economic conditions.
- To use the opportunity for in-depth study of the existing GEF project for developing background concentrations of existing contaminants, to verify proposed environmental quality standards, to establish environmental quality objectives, to explore the scope of possible polltion by the priority substances other than included in the national monitoring program
- To use the external assistance of GEF, IAEA, European Commisision, TACIS and other donors and project in order to assess fluxes, processes, trends in the open sea
- To establish a reliable quality assurance and quality control program in order to ensure comparability of data and consistency and comprehensity of information. For this purposes the resources of the existing international projects will be used to it whole extent. In particular, the assistance will be sought from the IAEA and Monako Marine Laboratory taking into account their experience in the former Black Sea Assessment project.
- To compile national monitoring data from the relevant activity centers starting from year 2002 within the existing and future regional environmental databases to be maintained by existing network of thematic activity centers and focal points
- To upgrade the Black Sea Monitoring and Assessment System in 2005, including the full set of relevant technical guidelines and quality assurance and quality control system
The regional division of the Black Sea for the monitoring and assessment purposes is proposed having in mind future extention to central part of the Black sea as soon as delimitation of the economic zones will be completed by all Black Sea countries:
- Bulgarian territorial waters
- Georgian territorial waters
- Romanina territorial waters
- Russian territorial waters
- Turkish territorial waters
- Ukrainian territorial waters
- Open Black Sea
The future work will be aimed at establishing a regular process of assessment of the state of the environment of the Black Sea in accordance with the Black Sea Strategic Action Plan and Provisions of the Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution
The final product of the assessment will be comprised from yearly reports of the activity centers to the Black Sea Commisision in an agreed format, regional databases, national five year reports and relevant scientific studies. In the beginning the knowledge and information gaps shall be addressed through the external international assistance.
Issues to be Addressed in the Black Sea Assessment Report
|Contaminant important to be monitorired||Issue to be addressed||Monitoring and Assessment Procedure||Action by||Actions for 2002-2003|
|Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu||1. Are agreed measures effective in reducing pollution||1. to estimate riverrine and direct discharges 2. to update of the Inventory of land-based discharges||AG LBS||1. to establish common reporting formats 2. to establish a regional database on land-based pollution discharges3. To compile national data on pollution loads starting from 2002|
|What are concentrations and fluxes in the sediments and biota||1. to monitor concentrations2. to develop background values and assessment criteria for environmental quality3. to establish regional quality assurance and quality control system 4. to proposed a set of indicators for reporting on the state of the environment of the Black Sea||AG PMA||1. to establish agreed format and procedure for informaaation exchange2. to establish reginal pollution monitoring database3. to develop background values and assessment criteria using the opportunity of the two cruises of the GEF Black Sea Project 2003|
|Organotin compounds||What are the levels of theorganotin compunds in the marine compartments of the Balck Sea ecosystem||1. to include the organonin screening into the research marine cruises of GEF Project||AG PMA||1. to assess the scope of problem for the Black Sea by random sampling in the vicinity of major sourcers of orhanotin pollution (say major ship routes)|
|PCBs1||1. What are loads of PCBs in the Black Sea||1. Tt make an inventory of PCBs sources and preliminary assessment of loads, including riverrine inputs||AG LBS||1. to compile national data if available2. to estimate riverine inputs if possible|
|2. What are concentration of PCBs in marine biota (including mammals) and bottom sediments||1. to survey pollution levels in bottom sediments and biota and its relevance for regional monitoring program||AG PMA||to include sampling for PCBs in the cruises scientific programs|
|3. What are levels of PCBs in marine food and do they pose high risk for human health||1. to assess level of PCBs in marine raw products||JRG||to include sampling for screening in the scientific research cruise(random sampling)|
|PAHs||What are major sources and how large are inputs||1. to inventorize possible pollution sources 2. to assess input of PAHs from different pollution sorces||AG LBSAG PMA||1. to compile existing information on PAHs in marine environment of the Black Sea 2. compile national information on PAHs loads if available|
|What are concentarions in maritime area||1. to carry out the screening of the levels of PAHs in biota and bottom sediments||AG PMA||1. to include PAHs measurements in scientific program of GEF cruises|
|Do PAHs affect fish and shelfish||1. to measure concentrations of PAH in fish and shellfish in order to develop an assessment tool||1. to incorporates random sampling into the scientific research program of cruises|
|Offshore chemicals||What chemicals are discharged and in what quantity||1. to conduct inventory of the existing discharges of chemicals fron off-shore installations||AG ESAS||1. to compile national information on offshore operations2. to compile national information on offshore discharges (composition, quantity, quality) if available|
|Phenols||What are loads of phenols from the land-based pollution sources?Do phenols pose the risk for humane health aand environment in the Black Sea Are bathing waters exposed to phenol pollution||1. to conduct an inventory of pollution sources of phenols 2. to estimate levels of phenol pollution in marine environment3. to estimate impact of phenol pollution on coastal waters||AG LBSPMAPMA||1. to compile national information on loads of phenols into the Black Sea2. to compile national information of levels of phenols|
|Detergents||What concentrations are in the coastal waters||1. to monitor concentration of detergents in coastal waters||AG PMA||1. to compile information on levels of detergents in coastal waters from national monitoring programs|
|Oil||What are pollution sources of oil||1.to assess pollution loads of oil products from landbased sources||AG LBS||1. compile national informations on oil pollution|
|Radionuclides||What are trends of radionuclide pollution in the Black Sea,?Do they pose rissk for human health and marine life||1.to monitor concentrations of radionulides in water, sediments and biota2. to assess risk for human health and biota||AG PMAIAEA||1. to approach the IAEA project The Black Sea Environmental Assessment in order to include their findings in the assessment report2. to incorporate data of the national monitoring network for radionuclide yearly reports to the BS Commisision|
|Accidents in the shipping and offshore industries||How many accidents occur in the shipping and offshore industries||1. To assess the quantity of spilled pollutants in case of accident, natural disasters from ships and off-shore installations||AG ESAS||1. to compile national information on accidental oil and chemical spills, their volume and impact area|
|Nutrients||Are agreed measures effective in reducing pollution Levels of nutriest||1. to assess loads of nutrients and to establish trends in loads and concentrations||AG LBSAG PMA||1. To compile national information on nutrients loads into the Black Sea and concentrations of nutrients in the Black Sea|
|Phytoplankton||How often phytoplankton blooms ocurr?What are areas of phytoplankton blooms What are consequences for the Black Sea flora and fauna||1. to monitor Chlorophill, phytoplankton, abundence, biomass and species composition, other relevant variables||AG PMAAG CBD||1. to monitor relevant biological parameters 2. to contact IRC in Ispra (Italy) for historical satellite images and their correlation with national information on nutrients concentrations and algae blooms, etc|
|Zoobenthos||What are zoobenthos communities structure and abindance||1. to monitor DiversitySpecies,, abundance||1. compile national information on zoobenthos communities and structure|
|State of other communities||What is state of assess, includingichtyofauna, macrophytes and other relevant components of the ecosystem||AG CBDAG FOMLR|
|Sources and occurance||What are sources of litter, its amount, and areas of its occurrence||1. To assess scope of problem for the Black Sea||AG ESASAG LBS||1. include some observations in the GEF cruises2. to ask Activity centers to compile recommentstions for coastal waters|
|Effects on birds and marine organizms||What are effects on birds and marine organisms||AG CBDAG FOMLR|
|Impact of fisheries on ecosystem||What are trends in fish catchesBy catches and discardsOverfishingBioaccumilation of toxic substances||AG FOMLRAG PMA||1. to compile annually national information on the fish catches|
|Genetic disturbance||What are trends in aquaculture developmentWhat species are cultivated|
|Transfer of diseases||What diseases where reported|
|Chemical used||What were used chemical were used||AG PMA|
|Habitats and ecosystem health|
|What indicators could be used for assessmnet of ecosystem health|
|Exotic species||What exotic species are intentionally and non-intentionally introduced||1. to identify exotic species||AG FOMLRAG CBD||1. to compile national information|
|What are risks and vectors of introduction of new exotic species||2. to assess risks and vectors of introduction of new ecotic species|
|Microbiological indicators||What is the quality of bathing waters in terms of bacteriological pollution||1. monitor bacteriological parameters||AG LBS||1. To compile national information on the quality of bathing waters2. to review Draft Guidelines for monitoring of the quality of bathing waters|