The Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution (the Black Sea
Within the institutional framework co-ordinated by the
UNEP. ML is a priority activity for the UNEP’s
Regional Seas Programme. The Governing Council decision 22/2 IIIA on this
Programme, calls for the utilization of the regional seas conventions and
action plans (including, among them, the Bucharest Convention and the Strategic Action Plan for the Rehabilitation
and Protection of the
In 1995, the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities (GPA) has been adopted under the auspices of UNEP. GPA is an action-oriented programme with the goal of addressing the negative effects of land-based activities on the marine and coastal environment, with special emphasis on the inter-linkages between the marine, freshwater and coastal environment. At the 1st Intergovernmental Review Meeting (2001) representatives of 98 governments expressed their concern that the marine environment is still being degraded to an increasing extent by pollution from different sources. Litter is one of principal pollution categories identified in GPA. It was recommended that states assess problems related to the severity and impacts of contaminants belonging to the principal categories including the ML.
WHO considers the ML problem as important constituent of medical, sanitary and aesthetic issues focused on the safe and salubrious use of the aquatic and coastal environment for public recreation and tourism. WHO published a series of reports on this topic (e.g., WHO, 1990, 1994) and produced appropriate guidelines. The Guide on the Monitoring Bathing Waters (Bartram and Rees, 2000) includes WHO recommendations regarding the methodology of ML surveying on the beaches and at sea (Chapter 12 by A.T. Williams, K. Pond and R. Philipp). The Guidelines for Safe Recreational Water Environments (WHO, 2003) describes possible adverse impacts of the recreational use of coastal and aquatic environments upon the health of users. It also outlines monitoring, control and prevention strategies relating to the hazards associated with these environments. ML issues (including aesthetic parameters, economic consequences, marine debris monitoring and management) are present mainly in Chapter 9 of the Guidelines.
FAO has prepared the Code of Conduct for
Responsible Fisheries (adopted in 1995) and technical guidelines for the
implementation of the Code. Among other things, the Code includes management
objectives and measures related to the ML problem: minimization of waste,
discards, catch by lost or abandoned gear, prevention of losses of fishing gear,
proper handling and storage of shipboard garbage. States should “cooperate to
develop and apply technologies, materials and operational methods that minimize
the loss of fishing gear and the ghost fishing effects of lost or abandoned
fishing gear”. The Fisheries Industry Department of FAO has a programme on the
“Impact of Fishing on the Environment”. FAO and
IOC. The 6th Session of the IOC Committee for the
Global Investigation of Pollution in the Marine Environment (1986) recommended developing
methodologies and facilitating efforts to monitor the amounts and types of
persistent litter in the seas. Some relevant activities, including several
pilot ML surveys and assessments, and the development of solid waste management
plans, were realized in 1987-
CIESM acts for the communication of scientific
information and the development of scientific standards across the
GESAMP is a multidisciplinary advisory panel consisting
of independent experts nominated by a number of the United Nations Agencies (United
Nations proper, UNEP,
EU environmental policy aims to achieve sustainability by including environmental protection in EU sectoral policies, preventive measures, the “polluter pays” principle, combatting environmental pollution at source, and shared responsibility. There are approximately 200 EU legal instruments covering a wide range of the environment-oriented fields, including water pollution, management of waste, nature conservation, and relevant European criteria and standards. The EU has adopted the Waste Framework Directive (1975), Directive on Hazardous Waste (1991), Directive on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (1996), Directive on the Landfill of Waste (1999), Directive on Port Reception Facilities for Ship-generated Waste and Cargo Residues (2000), Marine Strategy Directive (2005) and some other directives which have certain relation to the ML problem. The Sustainable Use of Natural Resources and Waste is one of four priority issues in the EU 6th Environment Action Programme (2001-2010). EU member states must ensure that an environmental impact assessment is carried out before approving certain public and private-sector development projects.
Until recently, there were no EU member states round the
A wide variety of governmental organizations, NGOs and
business establishments are concerned about marine and coastal pollution in the
BMEW includes two relevant departments responsible for
the coordination and planning – the Department of Waste Management and
Department of Waters. This ministry acts through such administrative/executive
structures as the Bulgarian Black Sea Basin Directorate (BSBD) and
Environmental Executive Agency (BEEA). BSBD has functional branches in the
coastal cities of
BMT acts through subordinate structures named as the
Bulgarian Maritime Administration (BMA) and Bulgarian Port Administration which
have their agencies/subdivisions of the same names in
The Marine Environment Protection and Control Department of the BMA is responsible for:
· control and protection of the
· administrative investigation in cases of marine pollution;
· examination of vessel’s documentation related to the protection of the marine environment;
· examination of vessel’s construction and equipment aimed to prevent marine pollution;
· control of port reception facilities and waste management plans in Bulgarian harbours and on ships;
· imposing fines and penalties in accordance to the national legislation;
· response to emergency situations accompanied with accidental pollution at sea.
BMH coordinates activities of the Regional Inspectorates
for the Protection and Control of Public Health located in Bourgas,
The collected ML and solid vastes are treated in waste
incinerators of the Port Varna and Port Bourgas (currently the latter is not in
operation) and municipal landfills. There are several enterprises involved in
this effort including the collection of ship garbage and port wastes (e.g.,
Marine Antipollution Enterprise
Some research institutions of the
Bulgarian NGOs involved in ML activities could be listed as follows (alphabetically): the Bulgarian Biodiversity Foundation, Bulgarian National Association on Water Quality (BNAWQ), Center for Environment and Sustainable Development, Greener Bourgas Foundation (GBF), Institute for Ecological Modernization, Mayday Foundation, and ‘Sea Friends’ Marine Club.
The Adjarian Department of the Environment and Natural
Resources along with Adjarian Department of Public Health are responsible for
ML affairs in the Autonomous Republic of Adjara. These governmental bodies are
not directly involved in ML management, but mainly in solid waste management in
the populated localities (cities, towns and villages) and harbours. In
No information is available regarding ML institutional arrangements in the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
The collecting, transporting and final disposal of ML and household waste are developed by local sanitation companies established in the riparian cities and contracted by the municipalities. Port reception facilities (including services for garbage collection from vessels) and the incineration plant for ship-generated waste are dependent on the Constanta Shipyard. All above activities are authorized by the local Environment Protection Agencies and controlled by the Environmental Guard.
Institutions that could be involved in ML studies and monitoring (as a part of appropriate national system) are represented by: the National Research and Development Institute for Environmental Protection (INCDPM–ICIM), National Institute for Marine Research and Development (INCDM), National Institute for Research and Conservation of Danube Delta, and Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve, with advisory assisstance from the Romanian Association for Solid Waste Management (ARS).
The environmental public movement in
Some major stakeholders are involved in anti-ML
cooperation. In particular, the shipping industry provided
· the Ministry of Natural Resources of the
· the Ministry of Public Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation including the Federal Service on Control in the Sphere of Public Health and Social Development, and the Federal Agency on Public Health and Social Development;
· the Ministry of Tansport of the
· the Federal Service on Hydrometeorology and Monitoring of the Enviroment; and
· the Federal Service on Ecological, Technological and Nuclear Control.
The regional governmental bodies are represented by
environmental, health protection and marine transport authories of two Russian
provinces (subjects of the
ML collecting services are developed in Russian harbours
On the seashore, the belts of sanitary protection are established along the entire coastline. Annually, just before and during summer holiday season, the administrations of coastal cities, towns and settlements carry out cleanup operations on municipal beaches, whereas the administrations of marine resorts, tourist centres and campcites do the same on the beaches used by their guests (holiday-makers).
No information about Russian NGOs interested in Black Sea ML problem was presented by the National Consultant.
Municipalities are prohibited to dump solid wastes to river beds and coastal zones, and Provincial Directorates of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry are in control of the issue. General Directorate of Borders and Maritinal Health of Ministry of Health monitor the water quality. Ministry of Environment and Forestry takes measures to prevent environmental pollution.
According to the Law for Environment No. 2872, Amended Environment Law No. 5491, Law of the Metropolitan Municipality No. 5216 and Law of the Municipality No. 5393 the local district municipalities are responsible for the collection and transportation of all municipality solid wastes to the transfer stations.
According to the Law of the Environment Article 8; ‘Waste discharging is forbidden to the receiving environment’. Control and audit, with the authorization of Laws and Regulations, belong to Provincial Directorates of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry. Licence authorization on marine issues such as bilge water and litter is provided by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, and coastal Municipalities.
According to “ Act on Guidelines for Response to Emergencies and Compensation of Losses in Case of Pollution of the Marine Environment from Oil and Other Harmful Substances” the powers, duties and responsibilities regarding drawing up of emergency response plans, implementation of emergency response plans in coastal areas, determination of the type and effects of pollution after the incident are vested in the Ministry of Environment and Forestry and Undersecretariat of Maritime Affairs; the executionary powers, duties and responsibilities regarding public security and police duties are vested in the Turkish Undersecretariat of Maritime Affairs and Coast Guard Command.
According to regulations on the control of solid waste, discharging of solid wastes into the sea, river and other receiving environments, streets, forests etc. are prohibited.
The implementation of the regulation on collecting wastes from ships has started. The infrastructure suitable for the reception of solid wastes has been established in every harbour. According to the Turkish Law of Environment, the audit and punishment of those polluting the marine environment belongs to the Governorships, however fining ships in municipal borders belongs to the authority of Mayors. The procedure for ships outside the borders is carried out by the Coastal Gendarmerie Command.
Permanent services for ML collecting are developed in
some places. Coastal cleanup campaigns are organized periodically by
environmental NGOs (e.g., TURMEPA in some tens of Turkish coastal sites
and STH in
Several representatives of major stakeholders are involved by NGOs in the partnership on ML issues: shipping companies (some of them make donations), manufacturers of plastics (CEVKO Foundation took part in recycling activities), fisheries, waste managers (e.g., the Turkish National Solid Waste Committee) and general public. Municipalities, local communities and authorities are rendering their assistance with organizing coastal and underwater cleanup campaigns, public meetings and educational actions.
The importance of environment issues in
· the Ministry of Environmental Protection (it includes the Division of the Black and Azov Seas and three State Ecological Inspections, respectively, for the areas of the North-Western Black Sea, Black and Azov Seas round Crimea, and for the rest of the Ukrainian Azov Sea);
· the Ministry of Public Health (it includes the Department of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Control); and
· the Ministry of Transport and Communication (it includes the Department of Marine and Riverine Tansport).
Besides, there are territorial Departments of the Ministry of Environmental Protection (along with appropriate territorial Ecological Inspections) in all seven seashore provinces of Ukraine including the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, the Odessa, Nikolayev, Kherson, Zaporozhye and Donetsk oblasts, and Sevastopol City/District.
Municipal and private companies provide ML/solid waste
collection and transportation services being contracted by the municipal
authorities and seaport administrations and supervised by above governmental
bodies and their local branches. Municipal landfills are often operated by
private companies. Most recycling companies are private. A network of centers
for collecting and sorting waste paper, glass and other recyclable materials is
There are at least three research institutions potentially interested in
ML studies and monitoring. They are: the Scientific Centre of Ecology of
the Sea (
Up to date, only a few coastal clanup operations have been implemented by Ukrainian environmental NGOs (e.g., the Crimean “Ecology and Peace” Association); thus, this public activity is still irregular in most places.